History of Photography and Movies in Australia and the world and Alternative Photography

The word "Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw") The word was  used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. with his fame and position he made the word "photography" known to the world." It is a method of recording images by the action of light, or related radiation, on a sensitive material."

The First Photo taken in Australia


On 13 April 1841    The Australasian Chronicle announced the arrival of the daguerreotype in New South Wales: “The inhabitants of Sydney will now have the opportunity of witnessing the effects of this very singular invention, one of the instruments having been brought to the colony by Captain Lucas, late commander of the Naval School expedition”... The description of the captain exactly fits that of Augustin Lucas from the ship L’Oriental rather than his younger brother François

13 May 1841: The first documented photograph in Australia, was taken on this day, being a  daguerreotype, it has been lost.

15th may 1841, the Australian reported  about  the first photo taken in Australia in Sydney,  on the 13th, at the store of Messrs  Joubert, and Murphy, they were agents for French ships "a trail of the daguerreotype", picture of Bridge st and part of George st, as it appeared from the fountain in Macquarie place, 


Back to the Beginning

330 BC The camera obscura was the direct forerunner of the camera. The first casual reference [to the Camera Obscura]  (Latin for dark room) is by Aristotle (ca 330 BC), who questions how the sun can make a circular image when it shines through a square hole.

989 AD The first evidence of any kind of mechanical visual reproduction, however, comes from Saudi Arabia, where unknown caravan riders noticed, at a time now lost, that a hole in their tent projected the inverted image of a passing camel onto the opposite wall. the Arabian scholar Hassan ibn Hassan described this accidental invention and gave it a name: the camera obscura

1000 Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham), a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages and lived around 1000 on the Gregorian calendar, invented the pinhole camera, and explained why the image was upside down. 

1519 The Camera Obscura (Latin for dark room) had been in existence in some form for at least four hundred years. There is a drawing, dated 1519, of a Camera Obscura by Leonardo da Vinci; about this same period its use was an aid to drawing, it was a dark box or room with a hole in one end. If the hole was small enough, an inverted image would be seen on the opposite wall

1569 Italian architect Giambattista della Porta is credited by some with inventing the first camera, although this is largely a matter of defining the word. As far is known, he built a working camera obscura, which he used beginning in 1569 to project the images of unsuspecting guests into a special room for the delight of a few select spectators -- the first spy camera. Della Porta was also the first to suggest that artists could use a camera obscura to trace images onto a surface, and to use a concave mirror placed at a 45-degree angle, which rendered his subjects in their proper perspective.

~1600, Della Porta apparently  was the first European to publish any information on the pinhole camera .

1600 Robert Hooke of England, designed a portable camera obscura that was given to mathematician Johannes Kepler

1604 Johannes Kepler  coined the phrase Camera Obscura . 

1609, Kepler further suggested the use of a lens to improve the image projected by a Camera Obscura.

1646 Some early Camera Obscura were enormous. Athanasius Kircher in a book written in 1646, described one which consisted of an outer shell with lenses in the centre of each wall, and an inner shell containing transparent paper for drawing; the artist needed to enter by a trapdoor, Then smaller, portable ones were made. Thus the camera obscura, as it came to be known, became a popular aid to sketching

1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of the flask exposed to sunlight. the Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound


1765 - March 7 - Joseph Nicéphore Niépce is born in Chalon-sur-Saône

1789 Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, was born in the village of Cormeilles, near Paris, France on November 18, . A professional scene painter for the opera, Daguerre began experimenting with the effects of light upon translucent paintings in the 1820s. In 1829, he formed a partnership with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce to improve the process Niépce had developed to take the first permanent photograph in 1826-1827.

1800: Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated rapidly, if displayed under light stronger than from candles there was no known method of making the image permanent


1800  11 February William Henry Fox Talbot, an Englishman was born 


1806 Another aid to drawing designed in 1806, but which worked in a different way, was the Camera Lucida, invented by William Wollaston

 1807 - The two Niépce brothers receive a ten-year patent, signed by Napoleon, for their invention of the first internal combustion engine, called the Pyréolophore. Early tests in a model boat on the Saône River are successful

1813  the craze for the newly-invented art of lithography  swept over France

1816: In France, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce began his initial experiments , he combines the camera obscura with photosensitive  sheets of silver salts coated paper known to blacken with daylight

1816 MAY  Niépce produced the first image of nature : a view from a window . It was a negative and the image vanished because in broad daylight the coated paper becomes completely black .  Comparing his camera obscura to an eye, Joseph Niépce called these negatives "Retinas".

1817  March  Niépce restarted his research on making images .  he focused his attention on the resin of Gaïacum extracted from a coniferous tree. This yellow resin becomes green when exposed to day-light and he notices  its solubility in alcohol .  At first he got fairly good results experimenting directly with sun-light , but he failed when using a camera obscura . He did not know that only U-V rays were active on this resin and that they were filtered by his camera obscura lens After the Gaïacum resin , Niépce used another resin, but mineral this time : asphalt or Judea bitumen . He demonstrated that under light action this resin became non-soluble with his usual solvents

1820's Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, who was a professional scene painter for the opera, Daguerre began experimenting with the effects of light upon translucent paintings.

From 1822  Niépce succeeded at reproducing drawings put in contact with bitumen coated bases (glass plates , calcareous stones then copper or tin plates ). he used the aqua fortis process to etch with acid the images he made and printed them on paper . This process will remain for a while the base of photoengraving used to print photos and graphical documents

1822,July Niépce coated a glass plate with bitumen and exposed it by contact under an engraving of Pope Pius VII. The engraving had been oiled to make the paper nearly transparent. The sunlight passing through the clear portions hardened the coating to the glass, but those portions shadowed by the lines of the engraving remained soluble. When developed in the oil of lavender the unhardened portions dissolved away, leaving a clear, fine-lined imaged

1822-1823,In order to reproduce drawings, , Niépce conceived what we now call the contact print. he applied varnish to the reverse side of an etching to make the paper translucid, and once dry he applied this etching directly in contact with the copper or tin plate coated with bitumen varnish . He exposed the lot in full daylight during three to four hours, The processed bitumen image was the drawing’s negative : the back is coloured in the dark bitumen brown and the lines are represented by the raw metal .
Then to get the drawing etched in the metal, he used aqua fortis . The plate carrying the Judea bitumen image is dipped in an acid bath , Once the lines are etched in the plate, the bitumen varnish is removed from the metal base to keep only the drawing etched on it .

1823 The earliest attempts of etching are not on metal but on lithographic stones . A Dijon printer produced paper prints from those stones .

In 1824, Daguerre was elevated to Knight of the Legion of Honour. He had learnt how to use a camera obscura with Prevost who used it to prepare his huge trompe-l’œil canvases . the optician that supplied Daguerre was Vincent Chevalier, who was also Joseph Nicéphore Niépce’s supplier , it is possible that he introduced the two men,  Daguerre began his research on developing a photographic technique, based on work performed by Thomas Wedgwood in 1806, using plates of metal and glass and variations in light sensitive coatings


1824-26 Joseph  Niépce met with some degree of success in copying engravings, Niépce etched his images on copper, then on tin The acid process is appropriate for line drawing reproduction where the gradations are represented by hatchings . In the case of images with continuous hues ,these one are reproduced by various thicknesses of bitumen that acid etching cannot render because the acid solution cannot permeate the varnish . Niépce understood this and he worked a lot to reproduce etchings .His best results came in 1826 with an engraving of the Cardinal Georges d'Amboise. He followed the same bitumen of Judea/oil of lavender process but this time employed a pewter plate in place of the glass one. He contact printed the engraving



This is the photo

This is what the scene looks like

The photo is hard to reproduce

The description by Francis Bauer. Mr Bauer also signed his name and address, Kew Green, at the bottom of this record. The denotation of the year of 1827 is generally accepted as Bauer's reference to the date of presentation and not as the year of Niépce's production of the plate

1826  June or July Joseph Niépce in the window of his upper-story workroom at his Saint-Loup-de-Varennes country house, Le Gras, he set up a camera obscura, placed within it a polished plate coated with bitumen of Judea (an asphalt derivative of petroleum, an compound dating back to the time of the Egyptians This material has the unusual property of hardening in light not blackening like silver salts but its light sensitivity is small ) and uncapped the lens. After at least a day-long exposure of eight hours, the plate was removed and the latent image of the view from the window was rendered visible by washing it with a mixture of oil of lavender and white petroleum which dissolved away the parts of the bitumen which had not been hardened by light. The result was the permanent direct positive picture  of " a view from nature. "  But it would take another 12 years to reduce the exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing

1827 September, Joseph Niépce travelled to  London to visit his brother Claude, who was dangerously ill. he  met  botanist, Francis Bauer, FRS, who examined the Heliograph specimens Niépce had brought with him and recognized the importance of his discovery. Bauer advised Joseph to write a memoir and present the paper and show the specimens to the Royal Society on December 8th. These specimens -- which were all referred to by Niépce as "Les premiers resultats obtenus spontanement par l'action de la lumiere" -- were returned , for the Royal Society felt unable to take cognisance of an invention for which the inventor was unwilling to disclose the details, Before his departure Niépce presented the heliograph specimens (including the First Photograph) to Francis Bauer.

1827, December  Daguerre met Niépce in Paris,  N'iépce was fascinated by the Diorama. Daguerre to had  the idea to capture the images of the camera obscura. he put phosphorescent powders at the back of his camera obscura. The image projected on this powder remained visible for a few hours then slowly faded away.

1828 February    The two men met again in Paris,  They started afterward to trade ideas by mail , later Niépce suggested to Daguerre to create a partnership to contribute to the further development of the invention of Heliography. The term "Heliography" was first coined by its inventor, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, to identify the process by which he obtained the first permanent photographic images. With its classical derivation from the Greek -- helios meaning sun, and graphein denoting writing or drawing -- the term encompassed both the source and the process in describing this first successfully permanent means of letting light record itself.



1829, Daguerre formed a partnership with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce to improve the process Niépce had developed to take the first permanent photograph in 1826-1827.  the two partners discovered new photographic processes using as photosensitive agents : tree resins and the residue of lavender oil distillation .

1832 Daguerre put a lot of work into the process. He brought an important contribution since the two men invented a new process called  the Physautotype. Hoping to shorten the exposure time of his process,  the two partners discovered new photographic processes using as photosensitive agents : tree resins and the residue of lavender oil distillation . This photosensitive agent was fine tuned by Niépce and Daguerre in June 1832 The exposure time was about 8 hours in the sun, they obtained this residue by evaporating lavender oil until they got a dry product . a dark brown tar becoming hard and brittle. then dissolved a small amount of this tar in alcohol then poured the solution on a well polished silver plate, After the alcohol evaporation, a uniform white deposit remained on the plate . The plate was exposed to light in the camera obscura (for about 7 to 8 hours). After exposure ,the plate was put upside down above a tray holding oil of white petroleum (something like kerosene) The fumes of this kerosene were sufficient to develop the image This process gives directly positive images since the white deposit remains on the plate, at places where the white deposit has become transparent, images can be seen as positive or negative .

1833, Niépce died in 03 July , of a sudden stroke at his home, After Niépce’s demise, his son Isidore would take his place in the partnership but no further improvements were forthcoming, after several more years of experimentation in secret, In 1835 Daguerre develops a more convenient and effective method of photography, naming it after himself -- the Daguerreotype. a photographic process that had exposure times that were only  a few minutes. Later Daguerre and Niépce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government

In 1833-1834, Talbot served in Parliament. Unsatisfied with the results he obtained sketching with a camera Lucida Talbot was inspired, while on a trip through Italy in 1833 to pursue serious photographic experiments



Early in 1834 Talbot began to experiment by employing a solution of the nitrate of silver for the purpose of preparing the paper; but the results were unsatisfactory.



August 1835, Fox made his first permanent paper negative image. An image of The lattice window in the South Gallery of his home, Lacock Abbey The negative is small (1" square), and poor in quality, Compared with Daguerreotypes the quality of the early Calotypes was somewhat inferior, but who cares it worked,  using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper

In 1835, Daguerre made an important discovery, believed to be by accident. An exposed plate was left in his chemical cupboard and found several days later. the exposed image had developed. Daguerre eventually concluded that this was due to the presence of mercury vapour from a broken thermometer. This important discovery made it possible to reduce the exposure time from some eight hours to thirty minutes, far shorter times than with heliography or the physautotype,  Though he now knew how to produce an image, it faded and it took another two years to learn how to "fix" it  .

1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury;   Using techniques learnt from Niépce, associated with entirely original ones, he discovers that an image can be fixed permanent by immersing it in salt. This new process he called Daguerreotype, with the name Niépce pushed to the background, Daguerre now had a complete process that produced images in a few minutes with the camera obscura ; Heliography and the Physautotype are replaced by this new process.  .


A Daguerreotype is a  unique image on silver-plated copper. It is unique because it is the same plate that was in the camera, there is no negative. and were popular until the mid 1850s


late 1838, Talbot made a new important discovery. He described it as "having spread a piece of silver leaf on a pane of glass, and thrown a particle of iodine upon it, I observed that coloured rings formed themselves around the central particle, especially if the glass was slightly warmed".." but an unexpected phenomenon occurred when the silver plate was brought into the light, by placing it near a window; for then the coloured rings shortly began to change their colours and assumed other and quite unusual tints, such as are never seen in the colours of thin plates.


 In 1839 Fox Talbot bought several instruments including a camera obscura for seven pounds fifteen shillings (£7.15). At that time the typical servant's wage would have averaged between ten and twenty pounds per year.

7 January 1839 :The Literary Gazette  read:

"Paris, 6th January 1839.

We have much pleasure in announcing an important discovery made by M. Daguerre, the celebrated painter of the Diorama. This discovery seems like a prodigy. It disconcerts all the theories of science in light and optics and, if borne out, promises to make a revolution in the arts of design.

M. Daguerre has discovered a method to fix the images which are represented at the back of a camera obscura; so that these images are not the temporary reflection of the object, but their fixed and durable impress, which may be removed from the presence of those objects like a picture or an engraving."

Thus the  daguerreotype was officially announced to the world  at the Academy of Sciences in Paris. Although the images obtained were shown to many persons during the following months, the technique was kept secret until August 19th, 1839, it was presented on behalf of Daguerre, by François Arago, secretary of the Academy of Sciences

1839 31 January:  Englishman William Henry Fox Talbot presents to the Royal Society of London a paper on photogenic drawing, permanent camera obscura images made with photosensitive silver salts on paper.
The Calotype process consisted of coating translucent paper with silver nitrate and potassium iodide, thus forming silver iodide. Prior to use the coated paper is recoated with a solution of gallic acid, silver nitrate and acetic acid. The gallinonitrate greatly increased the sensitivity which made it was no longer necessary to expose the negative until the image became visible. On a bright sunny day, an average portrait negative outdoors might take about a minute's exposure. I f poor paper and insuffient light were employed, exposure times can extend to hours. It was further developed with more of the gallinonitrate of silver solution to enhance the image. The final image was composed of fine particles of metallic silver. This image was then fixed with a weak hypo solution.

The Calotype process created a paper negative which then could be transferred as positive prints, multiple times, also on paper. The sensitivity of the writing paper used was suitable only for contact printing, meaning that no enlargement took place and that the negative had to be the same size as the desired final print.• It was a relatively simple and economical process and produced pleasing print tones." Unfortunately the small number of Calotype prints surviving today have faded due to the lack of sufficient washing and fixing methods during its production, news of the Calotype reached Australia sometime in Oct 1839.

1839 March: American Samuel F. B. Morse, in Paris to promote his telegraph, meets with Daguerre and returns to New York to teach the process. 


This is the very photo presented

On August 19th, 1839,  François Dominique Arago, perpetual secretary of the French Sciences Academy presented  the processes of Heliography and Physautotype. He also presented  Daguerre's process for fixing images of the camera obscura onto a silvered copper plate developed with mercury, before a joint session of the French Academies of Science and Fine Art,  only the daguerreotype is presented as having a future,  The French government purchased Daguerre's process for an annual life pension of 4000 francs to Daguerre plus an extra pension of 2000 francs for his system of moving decor of the Diorama ,  and An annual life pension of 4000 francs to M. Niepce, whose father had contributed towards the discovery of the Daguerreotype. Niépce ‘s name was hardly mentioned and is soon as forgotten.  The French government publicly announced the process and provided it free "a gift to the whole world"  The direct positive images start a craze



This may be the first man ever to have his picture taken in Paris getting his shoes shined, can you spot them in the above picture ?,Taken in 1839, this picture of a boulevard gives the impression of empty streets, with long exposures moving objects would not register, however this man stood still just long enough


"The Daguerrotype, was a positive image on a copper metal support. The Daguerreotype photographic process  It was the first successful process of photography. It created very good quality photographs, however they could not be reproduced, the surface was extremely delicate and the images were difficult to view from certain angles.• His first plates were 8 1/2"" by 6 1/2""; and it became the standard ""whole-plate"" size.•
The process consisted of exposing copper plates to iodine. Then the plate was heated over mercury to 75 degrees Centigrade. This caused the mercury to amalgamate with the silver. The combination would produce fumes forming light-sensitive silver iodide. Exposure to light left a milky white image or mercury amalgam. fixing the image permanently was initially accomplished with a warm solution of common salt and then later in sodium sulphite. the chemicals used, bromine and chlorine fumes and hot mercury, were highly toxic; The plate required use within an hour, with a 10 to 20 minute exposure depending on lighting conditions." Daguerreotypes were rarely made any larger than 6 x to 8  inches, called a whole plate, because of process difficulties. The most common size was 2 x by 3 º, or a sixth-plate size. 



20 August 1839 Details of the technique, revealing that a silvered copper plate cleaned with nitric acid was iodised, exposed in a camera and the invisible image was then revealed by action of mercury vapour, was published in the general press in Paris the following day the 20 August 1839

In September 1840, After the announcement of Daguerre's invention, Fox Talbot exhibited his photographs and disclosed his experiments at the Royal Academy: 'An Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing or the process by which natural objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the artist's pencil., Calotype is derived from the Greek word 'kalos' meaning beautiful. Even though the Daguerreotype enjoyed more success during the early days of photography, the Calotype process was the true fore runner of today's modern photography process.

1841 Talbot patents the Calotype, a negative-positive process on paper that employs the latent image developed by gallic acid Patent No. 8842,   His attitude towards patenting got out of hand.  His decision in 1854 to seek an extension of the normal term of fourteen years for his Calotype patent showed, in the circumstances of the previous few years, a lack of discernment. Perhaps it is easy to be trapped into feeling Talbot’s real researches are disfigured by his demand for recognition through his patents. In the end his achievements in photographic science should not be obscured in this way; but what a pity that it is necessary to remind ourselves that it is so. Talbot was pre–occupied with seeking recognition for precedence of discovery for his researches. It was a persistent (indeed tiresome) theme in his life


1841 In the mean time the name of Nicéphore Niépce remained unknown. Isidore published, in 1841, a booklet called : History of the discovery improperly misnamed daguerreotype, preceded by a note from its real inventor Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce. The inventor’s son vented out all his accumulated anger against Daguerre and tried to justify his attitude about the successive changes that moved his father to a secondary role in the invention, and  Nieépce’s name should be recognized as the inventor of photography .



On 13 April 1841    The Australasian Chronicle announced the arrival of the daguerreotype in New South Wales: “The inhabitants of Sydney will now have the opportunity of witnessing the effects of this very singular invention, one of the instruments having been brought to the colony by Captain Lucas, late commander of the Naval School expedition”... The description of the captain exactly fits that of Augustin Lucas from the ship L’Oriental rather than his younger brother François

13 May 1841: The first photograph taken in Australia, the earliest documented daguerreotype

15th may 1841, the Australian reported  about  the first photo taken in Australia in Sydney,  on the 13th, at the store of Messrs  Joubert, and Murphy, they were agents for French ships "a trail of the daguerreotype", picture of Bridge st and part of George st, as it appeared from the fountain in Macquarie place

May !841 Population of Sydney was 35,507 and Melbourne 7,631

9th December 1842,  in the "Australian newspaper" first advert in oz, for photographic portraits, Mr George  Baron  Goodman , one guinea including frame, took about 5 seconds exposure on bright day, daguerreotype, the first photographer to set up business in Australia, on roof top of Royal Hotel, Sydney, he may have used a "Reflecting" daguerreotype camera made by Joseph Wolcott that used a concave mirror not a lens, which gave a larger light collecting surface, and made quicker pictures.


1843 August GB Goodman also took first pictures in Hobart Tasmania

In 1843 Talbot started the first printing house for the mass-production of photographic prints. The following year he published The Pencil of Nature, the first photographically illustrated book, which included Talbot's images of sculpture and drawing and views of Oxford and Paris

1845 1st august G.B. Goodman went to Melbourne

1845 ST Gill imported the first daguerreotype camera into south oz

1846 10th Jan  Goodman arrived in Adelaide, and started taking pictures, he later went back to Sydney and could take daguerreotype pictures indoors, he later sold gear


1846  COLLODION was First formulated , collodion was, and still is, used as a medical dressing. as adhesive to close small wounds Made from cotton (or cellulose), soaked in nitric and sulphuric acids, it is thoroughly washed and dried, and then dissolved in ether and alcohol. making  a highly flammable, colourless or yellowish syrupy solution ,   from the Greek, kollodes, glutinous, glue like


1847June  GB Goodman sells his gear to brother in law Isaac Polack and and left Australia in 1850, that was the last of our first photographer.
It was a very difficult job, make and prepare his chemicals, prepare plates, distil all the water for washing, repair any faults, had to wait up to year for photo supplies from France or England, then one guinea was a lot of money and too expensive for most people, a disadvantage of daguerreotype, also the original plate was the finished plate and could not be reproduced


1847 26th August  Douglas kilburn opened in little Collins st

In 1848 A cousin of Nicephore Niépce, Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, perfected a process of coating a glass plate with white of egg sensitised with potassium iodide, and washed with an acid solution of silver nitrate. This new Albumen process made for very fine detail and much higher quality. However, it was very slow, hence the fact that photographs produced on this substance were architecture and landscapes; portraiture was simply not possible

1848 March  Daguerreotype's had peaked in quality, Douglas kilburn became the Squatters photographer


1849 October  kilburn displays first colour Daguerreotype's made in Sydney, kilburn received all the latest info from London , and was happy to share the info

1850 Englishman Frederick Scott Archer coats glass plates with sticky wet collodion with silver salts, Frenchman Louis-Desire Blanquart-Evrard makes positive photographic prints on paper coated with albumen (egg whites).

In 1850 William Hetzer arrived in Australia , he was one of the earliest to do Talbotypes, (The Calotype process) and it seems he was the first to trim pics in oval and circles, used a lens of 750 millimetres Dia to take Calotype's  in less than 30 seconds in the shade , he took many stereoscopic pictures around Sydney.



1851 After his retirement in Brie-sur-Marne, Daguerre died on the 11th of July  at the age of 62. Ironically the same year the wet collodion process was introduced by Frederick Scott Archer, which quickly replaced the Daguerre process.



1851, Ambrotypes are introduced in Europe and U.S. These wet collodion images are made as direct positives by blackening the back of the glass plate and are carried in cases. Wet collodion negatives and positive paper prints dominate photography  from 1852 to the mid 1860s

1851       Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in London, with help from Peter Fry,  improves photographic resolution by using wet collodion to hold the light sensitive chemicals, this reduced exposure times to two or three seconds,

 Wet collodion is  perfect  to hold chemicals on glass and a wide variety of surfaces.  A positive image on glass, called an Ambrotype; a positive image on asphalted iron, called a "tintype" or ferrotype; can all be made using the wet-plate collodion process. collodion is also called "cellulose nitrate," this is similar to the base used later for making movie films. the negative/positive process permitted unlimited reproductions,  the process was published but not patented.

The collodion process required that the coating, exposure and development of the image should be done whilst the plate was still wet. The silver image is produced by under-exposing wet collodion on glass,  bleaching it, and then placing a black background, usually black velvet, felt or paint behind it. This method is known as a direct  positive since one uses the actual image and no printing. The process required the negative to be processed immediately after exposure and can be thought of as an instant photograph of the 19th century , The black backing on the back of the collodion plate negative produced a pseudo -positive image called a  Ambrotype or collodion postive

Prices for daguerreotypes varied, but in general would cost about a guinea (£1.05), which would be the weekly wage for many workers. The collodion process, however, was much cheaper; Ambrotype prints could be made for as little as one shilling, which made them very popular,

They took less time to expose the negative than the daguerreotypes and additionally it could be viewed for any angle.  . A quick way to tell the difference is that a daguerreotype looks mirror-like, and in certain angles, you can see yourself. This is never true with an Ambrotype.

1852 13th August  The difficult patent situation was eased to some extent late in 1852 when Talbot came under pressure from influential persons to relinquish his patent. ,Talbot responded by announcing in The Times of 13th August 1852 that he would not retain the patent right over amateurs. But he did still insist upon requiring professional portrait photographers to obtain a licence from him to practise the Calotype process

1853   Tintypes invented by Adolphe Martin , The Calotype process is discribed in detail by D T Kilburn in Tassie at the Royal Society of Tassie

1854: Adolphe Disderi develops Carte-de-visite photography ( CDV's ) in Paris, leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios  The standard 2-1/2" x 4" format was patented by Disderi,  Through the use of a sliding plate holder and a camera with four lenses, four negatives could be taken by Disderi's method on a single 8" x 10" glass WET plate. a modern photo booth

The predecessors of Cartes de visite were calling cards. During the 1850s, it was the custom to present one's calling card at the time of a social visit. These cards were smaller than today's business cards, frequently consisting of a name engraved and printed on glossy stock; The CDV's were said to have been made popular by the Count of Parma, CDV's only cost about 15/- a dozen or 1/3d each, and envelopes had just been invented and Cdv's fitted exactly


1854 Monday 18 December The Talbot v. Laroche trial began, the lawsuit concerning the important photographic patent was heard for three days in the Guildhall of the City of London.   W. H. F. Talbot claimed that the professional use of the collodion technique infringed his Calotype patent, he was seeking damages of £5,000 from Laroche , After defending his patents  the jury were nearly one hour making their decision.  First they noted that Talbot was indeed ‘the first and true inventor of the Calotype process ... the first person who disclosed it to the public.’  but not all innovations, especially the wet-collodion process, 

The verdict  — Laroche by using the Collodion technique was not guilty of infringing that patent. , freeing photography in England from a virtual monopoly

Fox's Calotype process was sensitising  a sheet of paper with  nitrate of silver exposing it in the camera, then developing a paper negative, from which any number of prints could be made, but  paper is not fully transparent, producing  rather course printing, Glass was needed,


1854 Charles Nettleton arrived in Melbourne in 1854, then 22, and worked at photo studio of Duryea and McDonald, Nettleton worked on the out door pics, he photographed the first steam train to run in oz, in 1854, from Melbourne to port Melbourne.

in 1854  the freeman brothers started experimenting with stereoscope, but did not catch on till 1861

In 1854 The wet plate process was started to be used in Australia , dags dies out after about 1860.

In 1854 Walter Woodbury takes first in australia, 8 shot panorama of Melbourne

In 1854 J S Scarlett of Melbourne was the first to advertise for the Ambrotype or collodion positive

1855: Direct positive images on glass (Ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US, while collodion worked, it was  highly explosive,  only had life of few minutes, fixing done with CYANIDE. The Collodion-Albumen dry plate was introduced by Taupenot.

1856 5th March In the Melbourne Argus a advert was published to form an Photographic Society

in 1857 Antoine Fauchery started to experiment with stereomonoscopes taken with petval lens
which had the subject in focus but the background was diffused

in 1858  12 photographers in Melbourne, TA Hill claims he uses all process's Daguerreotype, collodion Talbot/Calotype,  GW Perry claims his photos taken without head rest, first lady photographer Miss Hampson, other Lady photographers were Louisa How (sydney), Mrs Thekla Hetzer and Madame Charpiot.  

in 1858  Charles Nettleton opened own studio, he photographed almost every street in Melbourne.

In 1858 Mr J Noone of 9 Collins St Melbourne was giving away a block of land at Talbot Vic with his pictures (700)

In 1858  The Melainotype or  Tintype process, or  Ferrotype, was processed immediately inventor, Peter Neff Jr, arrived in Australia , introduced by Glaister 1858.

1859 Sept  James Osborne in Melbourne invented the first practical photo mechanical process- photo lithography


1860  Another process was also used called Tannin Collodion Albumen process


1861: In London, Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates a projected colour photographic image system involving three black and white photographs, each taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were made into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same colour filters. This is the "colour separation" method.

1861 .Alexander Parkes produces a celluloid-like cellulose material

1862-1863 Sennotype was introduced to Australia by Charles Wilson, it is two identical albumen prints sandwiched together behind glass, the top print is waxed to make it transparent, and when aligned gives a 3D quality,

In 1864 Children were "executed" between 10 till 4

In 1864 Simpsontype used a coating of silver chloride in collodion on paper or opal glass , introduced to Australia about 1864 by TS Glaister.

1865 Jan  Charles Nettleton photographed  the confederate ship Shenandoah during American civil war in port Phillip bay, the visit of this ship cost Australia a lot of problems with the USA.

1865 Then came Woodbury types, a photomechanical process, this process used sensitised gelatine exposed to a negative,  when developed the image stood up slightly, then  huge pressure (with a hydraulic press) was applied on the gelatine relief to make an impression on a sheet of lead. The lead mould is used to make the prints, it had to use special ink, and was later replaced in middle 1890's by cheaper process, Walter Woodbury was a photographer who operated in Beechworth Victoria

1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods for colour photography

1868 CDV's were made till about late 1860's then early 70's cabinet size 41/2x61/2 took over

From late 1860's magic lantern shows where big business, with a silver coin fee

1870 The American and Australian company were very busy taking street views in Australia

1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of an emulsion of gelatine and silver bromide on a glass plate, the "dry plate" process for photography


1872 - 7th Sept  First amateur photographic soc of NSW formed, Joseph Docker vice president


1873 John Wesley Hyatt trademarks the name "celluloid" in U.S. and Great Britain

1875 in 1875 panels 81/2x61/2 took over

in 1876 John w lindt came to Melbourne, he took many pics, and bought some land he called the hermitage on the black's spur at Healesville Vic

1877 August: American Edward Muybridge develops a fast shutter that aids him in making photographs of objects in motion

1877, Fox died at his home, Lacock Abbey, at age 77

1878  Charles Bennett improves gelatine dry plate (ripening) , he discovered ways of heat treating the plates to make the silver bromide gelatine emulsion more stable and far more sensitive to light, by increasing the photosensitivity it takes less exposure time,. and reported in the "British Journal of Photography." The Dry plate  was made by the gelatine being dissolved by heating in a kettle, then the silver nitrate and bromide was added, then it was kept at high temperature, for some time this "Ripened"    the mix, and made it highly light sensitive, the mix was poured into a large dish and allowed to set. When firm it was cut into strips and washed in water, this removed the surplus silver, the gelatine strips were heated again and poured over glass plates, and allowed to set, and packed away for use, they would last for years.

1878: Dry plates being manufactured commercially,  with the invention of dry plates you could carry around the plates for up to two years before developing  along with new lenses objects in motion could be taken in one hundredth of a second, and was a blessing to out door photographer

1879  Photogravure was invented by Karl Klic in Austria, is a photomechanical process; the finished prints are made in ink on a printing press. The method, one of the best, transferred the photographic image to a copper printing plate, which was then etched to retain ink in areas corresponding to the blacks of the picture.

1880: George Eastman, age 24, sets up Eastman Dry Plate Company in Rochester, New York.

1880 First half-tone photograph appears in a daily newspaper, the New York Graphic

1880 Celluloid had been invented in the early eighteen-sixties, and John Carbutt persuaded a manufacturer to produce very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material. George Eastman is particularly remembered for introducing flexible film in 1884.  later he introduced the box camera, and photography could now reach a much greater number of people

1880 Nettleton had contract with police for 25 years for photos. he had a permanent dark room in cell at jail, he took Harry power, and Ned.

in 1880 lindt took the picture of Joe Byrne being photographed, and the crowd at Benalla, John Wadley made about 16 prints at Glenrowan, W s Barnes at Wangaratta took pictures of the Kelly gang and the police at glenrowan.

in 1884 Thomas baker put his dry plates on the market and formed the Austral plate Co at Abbotsford in Melbourne


1887 The Reverend Hannibal Goodwin, a minister at the House of Prayer in Newark, New Jersey, invents a method for making transparent, flexible film and applies for a patent

1887 Blitzlichtpulver or flashlight powder was invented in Germany  by Adolf Miethe and Johannes Gaedicke. Lycopodium powder (the waxy spores from club moss) was used in the  early flash powder.

1887 Thomas Baker was joined by J J Rouse , (Baker and Rouse) they  later became Kodak (Australasia)

1887 December: The Eastman company starts use of the Kodak trademark

1889:  Kodak Improved camera with roll of film instead of paper

1890 Charles Nettleton closed his studio in 1890, died 4th Jan 1902 76

1890 Thomas baker an amateur photographer of Melbourne using a dry plate took several photos of horse Carbine at Melbourne cup


1895 Louis and August lumiere two French chemists, opened the first movie pictures, called le cinematograph, the first cinema in Paris, and showed short 60ft gazettes, about 1.5 minutes

1895 The Pocket Kodak was introduced to Australia, it was small, light and simple, and sales boomed at on one Guinea, it brought photography to within reach of all Aussies.  12 pictures per roll over 60,000 sold

1896 Jan  Walter Barnett met Maurice Sestier who worked for lumiere, Barnett offered to finance him and come to Australia.

 22 Sept The first movie camera came to oz, Sestier took movies of Sydney harbour, each film about 60 ft.
Sestier was not good at developing so Arthur Peters made a drum machine that ran the film correctly through the chemical developing tanks, this same process is still the same today

28 Sept  First Sestier movie made in oz shown 1\- each

October Carl Hertz in Sydney was first to SHOW a movie made outside of  oz

 November Sesteir moved to Melbourne to film the Melbourne cup, but the film was too slow to film the race, but pictures of crowd were taken,  the film was taken back to Sydney and processed., it now lives in Paris.


1897 Pathe and Gaumont take items of reportage 60-75 feet

1897 Sestier sold the two lumiere cameras to JJ Rose and moved back to Paris

1898 George Melies takes "the vanishing lady" 120 ft

1899 George Melies strings together a series of magic illusions 900ft

1899 Joseph Perry of the salvation army in Melbourne takes "soldiers of the cross" cut to 3,000 feet, hand coloured 

1900 13 September  at 7.45pm at Melbourne town hall, Joseph Perry of the salvation army in Melbourne shows  "soldiers of the cross" it contained many special effects. and cost 600 pound

1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced

1900-1902 George Melies takes "a trip to the moon"

1903 The Americans make the great train robbery 600 ft, made by Edwin porter

1906 The Kelly gang movie made in Oz

1907: First commercial colour film, the Autochrome plates, manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France ,  the first colour photography system that can be used by amateurs, Microscopic grains of potato starch were dyed red, green, and blue-violet, then mixed evenly and coated onto a sheet of glass.

1909 Ernest Higgins takes John Vane bushranger and Captain Starlight

1925 .October 25: John Logie Baird, a Scotsman living in England, transmits the first photographic image with a full range of half-tones without the use of wires. the beginning of TV


1926 John w lindt  at the hermitage on the black's spur at Healesville  died 19 Feb  aged 81

1930  September 23,  The first commercially available photoflash bulb was patented by German Johannes Ostermeier. These flashbulbs were named the Vacublitz,  General Electric produced a flashbulb called the Sashalite

1946 Zoomar introduces the zoom lens, the invention of American Frank Back

1947 Edwin H. Land announces his invention of the Polaroid camera, which can develop images inside the camera in approximately one minute.

1963 Kodak introduces the Instamatic line, the first point-and-shoot cameras

1986 Fuji introduces the Quicksnap, a disposable camera that revisits the original Kodak principle: the user sends the camera into the manufacturer, which then develops the film

1992 Kodak introduces the Photo CD, the first method of storing digital images to become available to the general public.


1992 February: JPEG, a compression standard for storing and sending photographic images over the Internet, is described in a paper published in "IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics." now they are everywhere on the world wide WEB , get it ?

Its a picture of a spider



The various Alternative photographic processes or Alternative Photography

Abration tone was invented by William Mortensen, his abrasion tone used projection papers such as the former Eastman Kodak Projection Proof. The surface was marked by razor blade etching, pencil work and pumice work

Alabastrine was a variation of the Ambrotype, the image was bleached with mercuric chloride, in Melbourne 1858-60.


Albumen paper prints  They have a sepia colour and slightly glossy Thin sheets of paper were first coated with egg white and salt, then floated on silver nitrate to make them sensitive to light. The image is created by contact printing under a wet plate negative in sunlight. The finished picture is fixed, washed, and often gold toned Invented by Louis Desire Blanquart-Evrard of France in 1850.


Ambrotype or collodion positive process also known as Collodiotype was patented in 1854 and enjoyed great popularity , It produced pictures on glass plates. Like the earlier daguerreotype, each image is unique, made one-at-a-time in the camera. The glass is covered with a sticky material known as iodised collodion. It is then sensitised by being dipped into a bath of silver nitrate, and exposed in the camera while still wet. A chemical developer is used to bring out the image. The glass plate is then backed with black material--paint, cloth or paper--and furnished in a case similar to those used for daguerreotypes. The Ambrotype process was an improvement, over the  reflective quality of daguerreotypes , introduced to Australia in 1854, very popular in 1855-1865.

Amphitype  Part of the Siderotype family, using iron-1844 - Sir John Herschel: positive or negative on paper; brown image that quickly faded. Also European name for Ambrotypes.

Anthotypes  originally invented by Sir William Herschel in1842, An emulsion is made from crushed flower petals or any other light-sensitive plant, fruit or vegetable. A coated sheet of paper is then dried, exposed to direct full sun-light until the image is bleached out over several days or more depending on conditions and negative/material

Argentotype  Invented by Sir John Herschel, Iron salts (ferric citrate) are used to precipitate silver under the influence of UV-light. The print is developed in silver nitrate. This process was later modified to become what is now the more known Kallitype and Vandyke process.


Atrephograph  was invented by James M. Letts.

Aurotype   Part of the Siderotype family,  using iron.

Autotype permanent paper print using the carbon process, reached Australia in 1870, with Victor Prout. used gelatine with potassium dichromate and pigment

Autochrome plates were the invention of Auguste and Louis Lumiere, who patented the process in 1904 . Microscopic grains of potato starch were dyed red, green, and blue-violet, then mixed evenly and coated onto a sheet of glass. A black-and-white emulsion was then flowed over this layer. During exposure, the grains of potato starch on each plate acted as millions of tiny filters. The light-sensitive emulsion was then reversal processed into a positive transparency. When viewed, light passes through the emulsion and is filtered to the proper colour by the starch grains. Resulting in a mosaic of glowing dots.

Breath print   Part of the Siderotype family, using iron.

Breyertype also known as Playertype invented 1839 by Albrecht Breyer, Belgium. Negative facsimile of text (white letters on brownish-black background). A contact process only used silver chloride.


Brown line  Part of the Siderotype family using iron.

Cabinet photograph  is a larger version of the carte-de-visite, often enamelled or toned, introduced to Australia by Freeman in 1866

Calotype was the name given to the first practical negative-positive process of photography. Capable of producing multiple copies of any given image, the Calotype (also called Talbotype) was invented by William Henry Fox Talbot in September of 1840. An earlier Talbot invention, photogenic drawing, was also capable of creating photographic images in the camera, but was quite slow and could not be used for photographing people or anything that moved. The process used paper negatives to make salted paper prints, To make a Calotype, plain sheets of writing paper are coated with a solution of silver nitrate, dried, then dipped in potassium iodide to form silver iodide. After being dried again, the paper is floated on a mixture containing silver nitrate and gallic acid. The same mixture is used to develop the negative image after exposure. Following fixing in hypo, this paper negative was generally waxed for transparency and used to make salt prints. First came to Sydney Australia in 1850 by William Hetzer. They died out in about 1860

Carbon prints, patented in 1864 by Joseph Wilson Swan, offered a permanent image without grain. Negatives were printed onto a "tissue" containing carbon and other pigments in a gelatine base. The gelatine had previously been made light-sensitive by a bath of potassium bichromate. After washing, the image on the tissue was transferred to a paper base and the backing of the tissue was stripped off.


Cameo or Cameo card 1860-1880. A variation of the carte-de-visite with a convex surface resembling a cameo medallion. also made with special camera with movable back so wet plate could be rotated to give multiple pictures of sitter

Carte-de-visite  was introduced to Sydney Australia in 1859 by William Blackwood

Catalisotype This process used hydrochloric acid, syrup of ioduret of iron, iodine and nitrate of silver.

Catalysotype 1844 - Dr. Thomas Wood (Ireland), used- iron iodide and silver nitrate, image appeared after period of dark storage, the delay attributed to catalysis.

Catatype Also known as katatype ,1901, W. Ostwald, Germany. An image transfer process utilizing paper soaked in hydrogen peroxide and placed in contact with a silver or platinum print. 


Casein pigment     A process patented by the Neue Photographische Gesellschaft, in 1908, for obtaining prints in caseine (Milk) and pigment from bromide or other silver prints.

Ceroleine also known as LeGray process, 1851 - Gustave LeGray, France, Waxed paper negative, a modification of Talbot's Calotype. improved light transmission through the paper and reduces  paper fibre pattern during positive printing. Cerolein is a white constituent of beeswax.


Clamp or head clamp was a device to hold the head or body still while the picture taken as most took several minutes to expose


Collodiotype also see Ambrotype

Collodion positive also see Ambrotype

Collodion negatives were a wet plate negative on glass, with the emulsion poured on by hand, most dated between 1858-1880 in Australia.

Collodion prints used the sticky nitrocellulose emulsion, collodion, This was mixed with silver chloride and coated onto paper.  The whites of the image lack the yellowish cast of albumen prints. 


Chlorophyll prints       Photosynthesis takes place in plants as carbon dioxide, water, and light energy is converted to sugars and oxygen, and can be  used to record images onto leaves. The leaves are then cast in resin, negatives are placed onto the leaf, and placing that into a contact printing frame. The image formation was all due to chlorophyll, light, carbon dioxide, and water.

Chromotype used chromium salts, not very light sensitive, Fredrick Firth claimed it was his invention in 1856, was in use in Australia in 1861, olive in colour.

Chromotype #2 Coat paper with a sulphate of copper and bichromate of potash solution and expose it to sunshine, then apply a solution of silver nitrate, direct positive.

Chrysotype also known as Chripotype. 1842, Sir John Herschel. used ferric salts developed with gold or silver chloride, used as  basis for later commercial kallitype


Chrysotype REX (gold prints)

Crystallotype Patented 1850 - John A. Whipple, Salt prints made from albumen glass negatives containing honey. 

Crayon Daguerreotype an invention made by Mr. J. A. Whipple, The pictures produced by this process-- the appearance and effect of very fine "Crayon Drawings,"


Cyanotype process was invented in 1842 by Sir John Herschel The brilliant blue images have a matte surface. Because iron salts are used (rather than silver compounds) for the light-sensitive material, Architectural blueprints were made by the same process.

Cyanotype Rex A form of Cyanotype, based on information from  Sir John Herschel in 1842 - also called "Herschelotype". The Cyanotype Rex has much shorter exposure times than the other recipes.


Daguerreotype process, the first practical form of photography, was made public in August of 1839, but seldom able in its earliest form to produce portraits. This was due to the lengthy exposure time required. A daguerreotype is made on a sheet of silver-plated copper sheet. The silver surface is polished to a mirror-like brilliance. The plate is then sensitised over iodine vapour, exposed in the camera, and developed with mercury vapour. By 1840, experimenters had succeeded at increasing the sensitivity of the process by using chlorine or bromine fumes in addition to the iodine vapour.  a brown-toning process called "gilding" came into use later. Daguerreotypes have exceptionally fragile surfaces and for this reason, they were always furnished behind glass in frames or small folding cases, they do tarnish making the picture hard to see. They died out in Australia after about 1860

Dilute albumen print--(first proposed by the inventor of albumen paper in 1850) in which the albumen is diluted with salt water in order to reduce the gloss. The resulting image can have a matte finish like a Calotype, with the finer detail and tonality of an albumen print.

Direct positive printing - invented by Hippolyte Bayard. 1839 His invention of photography actually preceded that of Daguerre, The direct positive process involved exposing silver chloride paper to light, which turned the paper completely black. It was then soaked in potassium iodide before being exposed in a camera. After the exposure, it was washed in a bath of hyposulfite of soda and dried. The resulting image was a unique photograph that could not be reproduced

Double portraits became popular in the 1860's in Australia, it was made with two exposures of the plate with a masking plate used between the two of them.

Dry plates  Invented by Richard Leach Maddox, in 1871. 

Energiatype or Ferrotype, invented by ROBERT HUNT in 1844 he used  ferrous sulphite paper negative also Gum arabic salt print sensitized with silver nitrate, developed in ferrous sulphate.


Feertype also see Diazotype 1889 Dr. Adolph Feer, Germany, forerunner of commercial Ozalid copy process, based on aniline dyes; various colours.

Ferro-gallic process In 1861 Alphonse Louis Poitevin, a french chemist. Found the reduction and conversion of ferric salts to a ferrous state when exposed to UV-light. A graphic technique, producing very black images.


Ferro-tannic process  Iron salts (ferrous sulfate) turn black when exposed to tannic acid, potassium dichromate and water mixed, paper was coated and dried, then exposed in contact frame and washed. Toned in tannic acid to create a black print.

Ferrotype Originally called Energiatype. The process uses proto-sulphate of iron as a reducing agent.   

Ferrotype #2  is also a  photograph made by creating a direct positive on a sheet of metal, usually iron or steel that is blackened by painting, laquering or enamelling and is used as a support for a collodion photographic emulsion

Ferrotype  also Melainotype or Tintype

Fluorotype   Paper is washed with bromide of potassium and with fluate of soda.1844 - Robert Hunt, England. variation of Energiatype using sodium fluoride

Fresson process This process appears to  be based around an emulsion composed of both gelatine and gum along with a pigment, exposure to UV light and washing out dichromate stains, invented by Théodore-Henri FRESSON who showed the French Society of Photography "Photographic prints made on charcoal paper made without transfer", in 1899

Gaudinotype 1853 - Marc Antoine Gaudin, France: Paper negative, early collodion or gelatin emulsions.

Gelatine negative was a dry plate glass negative, first  Australian produced  in August 1880

Gem Portraits were about the size of a shilling and  had sticky backs for pasteing on letters or books to send to friends

Hallotype also see Hellenotype, variation of Ambrotype, In Australia 1856. I

Heliograph taken on type of porcelain

Herschelotype    A variation on Cyanotype Rex by Michael Maunder.

Hydrotype (also carbon) Patented 1889 - A. H. Cros, France. Dyed bichromated gelatin on paper and glass.

Infallotype was used by Thomas Flintoff in Australia in 1860, it appears to have been a oil coloured cartes de visite  

Ivorytype / Hellenotype   A picture produced by superposing a very light print, rendered translucent by varnish, and tinted upon the back,

kallitype also see Argentotype 1843 - Sir John Herschel, England. later 1889 - Dr. W.W.J. Nichol, England. used silver and ferric salts with variations. Usually brown to reddish brown; appearance sometimes resembled Platinotypes, but suffered with fading. 

Kelaenotype    Part of the Siderotype family using iron.



Kwik-Print    was a late-'70s technique involving coating a plastic
receptor sheet with light-sensitive dyes.


Melainotype--original name for the Tintype process, also Ferrotype, inventor, Peter Neff Jr, arrived in Australia about 1858

Melanograph (also atrograph) 1853, Dr. Langdell, Philadelphia; A.A. Martin, France. 1854; G.M. Campbell, England, 1854. Collodion print on black paper sensitized with silver nitrate; a combination, like the ambrotype.

Metotype Paper coated with gold, silver, copper, or bronze metal powders, with a printing-out emulsion on top. The effect was that of an image on metal. 


Nakahara's process   Part of the Siderotype family of processes using iron.

Opaltype or milk glass , introduced to Australia about 1882, the image is on white or Opal Glass

Orotones    or Goldtones or Curt-tones, the images would have been made by printing a positive image onto a sheet of glass coated with a photosensitive emulsion. The image on the glass was then backed with a mixture of oils and gold bronzing powder or gold powder

Ozitype, simple process developed by author of this page uses tartrated ammonium salts, not a permanent process.

OZOTYPE  is a pigment process introduced by Thomas Manley in 1898,  A gelatine silver bromide was transferred by contact to pigment paper.

Palladiotype 1870's popular because of  platinum salts scarcity, Appearance similar to Platinotypes, used cheaper palladium salts

Pannotype is a collodian negative on black leather, appears as dark positive, designed for posting in the mail, first appeared in Australia in 1856, at Ballarat,

Platinotypes, used platinum salts very expensive. introduced to Australia by Charlemont studio.

'Pigment 'Processes'.  carbon, carbro, oil, bromoil, dusting-on, anthracotype, nigrographic and the true-to-scale print

Photogenic drawing was the name William Henry Fox Talbot gave to his initial photographic invention. early in 1834, Talbot was making salt prints by placing lace, leaves and other objects on light-sensitive paper and exposing it to the sun. Although Talbot used photogenic drawing paper in the camera exposures in the camera often took hours, so most photogenic drawings were made by the superposition of objects

Physautotype  made from the residue of heated lavender oil, see my  PAGE1 and  PAGE2 for my experiments.

Photogravure is a photomechanical process; that is, one in which the finished prints are made in ink on a printing press. The method, one of the finest ever developed, transferred the photographic image to a copper printing plate, which was then etched to retain ink in areas corresponding to the blacks of the picture. Photogravure was invented by Karl Klic in Austria in 1879.

Photo-prosopon  Portraits in oil,  using a photographic process , taking about half a minute.

Platinotype  invented 1873 by William Willis, England, also sepia version patented 1878. seldom faded. possibly the most beautiful black and white process.


Platinum prints are among the most beautiful and permanent of all photographs. They provide a wide range of subtle grey tones, and the image is embedded in the fibres of the paper--instead of in an emulsion coating the paper surface. Thus, like salt prints and cyanotypes, the surfaces of platinum prints have no natural sheen or gloss. Because the finished image is made of metallic platinum which is highly stable, these photographs are resistant to fading.

Pellet print    Part of the Siderotype family, processes using iron.

Phipson's process    Part of the Siderotype family,  processes using iron.

Photoceramics  light sensitive  compounds and metallic oxide images fused onto ceramic substraits  in monochrome colours.

Pizzitype Captain Giuseppe Pizzighelli's  Pizzitype paper (similar to Ziatype) was manufactured a short time until technical problems stopped the production.

Platinograph Another name for, and the same as, the Kallitype process.

Polychrome    Another name for, and the same as, the Kallitype process.

Pontontype   Mongo Ponton a Scottish inventor, In 1839 discovered that potassium bichromate was sensitive to light. The print unfortunately faded with few months. But  was the beginning of gum bichromates!

Rawlins process   invented in 1904 a process by which a layer of bichromated gelatine was exposed to light under a negative, The tanning of the gelatine is in direct proportion to the transparency of the negative. Shadow areas are strongly tanned, mid-tones less so and highlights are not tanned at all.

Resinotype inventor, Rodolfo Namias

Salt print is the positive printing procedure invented by Talbot. The negative is placed in contact with a sheet of writing paper which has been floated on salt water and then coated with silver nitrate. After exposure to sunlight, the finished print is fixed in "hypo', washed and dried. Unless they have been glazed or varnished, salt prints have a matte surface, with the image actually embedded in the fibres of the paper.

Silver print is a term used here and elsewhere for a variety of processes, many of which cannot be precisely identified without laboratory testing. The light-sensitive compounds can be silver chloride or silver bromide or a mixture of these. They can be coated onto the paper in a layer of gelatine or collodion; their surfaces can be matte, glossy, or somewhere in between; and their tones can mimic the silvery greys of platinum prints, the warm browns of albumen prints, or a range of other colours. Most of the black-and-white photographs made during the 20th century have been gelatine-silver prints.

Satista Another name for, and the same as, the Kallitype process. It is an economical hybrid of platinum and silver. produces images which look like platinum and are in between silver and platinum.


Sennotype is two identical albumen prints sandwiched together behind glass, the top print is waxed to make it transparent, and when aligned gives a 3D quality, used from around 1862 onwards in Australia.

Sensitol Another name for, and the same as, the Kallitype process.


Sepiatype Part of the Siderotype family  using iron.

Siderotype covers all the iron-based processes - comes from the Greek root word 'sideros', meaning any 'iron-type' print. The term was coined by Sir John Frederick William Herschel. Processes defined as siderotypes are  amphitype, argentotype, argyrotype, aurotype, breath print, Brown Line, chromatic photo, chrysotype, cyanotype, ferrogallic process, kallitype, kelaenotype, Nakahara's process, palladiotype, pellet print, Phipson's process, platinotype, printout platinum, satista print, sepia platinotype, sepiatype and vandyke..


Simpsontype used a coating of silver chloride in collodion on paper or opal glass , introduced to Australia about 1864 by TS Glaister.

Soline  Another name for the Kallitype process.

Sphereotypes  is a process by Albert Bisbee in 1856. It was essentially a positive collodion image on glass that was exposed through a spherical mask  

Stereotypes or Stereo views all used Dags , ambrotypes or Calotypes , after 1854 albumen prints were pasted on flat cards

Talbotype See 'Calotype'.

Tannin collodion albumen process, not true dry plate very slow,  it took 60 seconds to expose popular around 1860-1868

Tintypes also Melainotype , were the invention of Prof. Hamilton Smith of Ohio. They begin as thin sheets of iron, covered with a layer of black paint. This serves as the base for the same iodised collodion coating and silver nitrate bath used in the Ambrotype process. First made in 1856, millions were produced well into the twentieth century. Popular in Australia 1880-90.

Wet Plate--the name given to a process invented by Frederick Scott Archer of England in 1851. Widely used to produce negatives  As a negative process, a piece of clear glass is coated with a very thin layer of iodised collodion (made from gun-cotton [nitrocellulose] dissolved in ether and alcohol, mixed with potassium iodide). The coated plate is dipped in a silver solution in the darkroom which makes it light-sensitive. After this, the plate must be immediately exposed in a camera. The exposure needs to be completed before the chemicals on the plate have time to dry out--hence the name of the process. After development and fixing, the negative can be printed on any material.

Wothlytype used uranium salts in collodion emulsion , introduced to Australia by T S Glaister about 1864.


Woodburytype--a photomechanical process in which the completed prints are not made with light-sensitive materials. One of the most beautiful and permanent of all methods of producing prints in quantity, the Woodburytype process was also among the most difficult. A light-sensitive gelatine material is exposed to a negative, resulting in a three-dimensional relief-map of the image. Then the difficult part: applying huge pressure (with a hydraulic press) on the gelatine relief to make an impression in a block of lead. The lead mould is used to make the prints, which have exquisite tonality and a slightly raised surface. Introduced 1865, Walter Woodbury was a photographer who operated in Beechworth Victoria

Xylographic process they were made on wood for guide for engravers


Last update 01 October 2010