LAST UPDATES : 17/09/09 small update, please note single  pictures will be replaced with multiple pics later.

 24/04/07 over 450 Bushrangers names added,  All executions in Victoria added,  Events of interest in North East still being added ,  



 This is page 2, the Timeline pages have  Links to approx 550 pictures they are  best viewed in IE 5+  @ 800x600, with JAVA enabled


Ned Kelly,  Enforced Outlaw

This photo was taken by Charles Nettleton, using the  dry plate process the day before Ned was hanged

Photographs are very important to this site, The first photograph taken  in Australia seems to have been on 13 May 1841 , it was a Daguerreotype on silver plate.


The North East of Victoria was pioneered and settled by "Over Landers" from New South Wales and "Squatters" and "Selectors" from Port Phillip District , and  My Great Great  Grandparents, who were free Settlers in 1839.

Early events in history were the foundation of later events which affected the lives of early North East Victorian settlers, and Australia wide, they helped shape life's path for  Ned Kelly,  Dan Kelly,  Steve Hart , Joe Byrne,  Tom Lloyd and Aaron Sherritt. The Kelly story starts in 1820. The area we know today as Kellycountry takes in the North East of Victoria from Mansfield to Bright in the east, Beechworth to Yarrawonga in the North, and Euroa to Burramine in the West, taking in towns like Benalla, Greta, Glenrowan and Oxley.

From the 1600's only the edges of the Australian coastline was explored , read on and find out what later events started settlement with Police stations and Court Houses in towns like Benalla, Glenrowan, Greta, Wangaratta, Beechworth.  You need to be aware of some Town name changes, as they are now in the year 2000, the original  town of Greta is now called Greta west, the town we call Greta today used to be called Hanson.


Please read the DISCLAIMER  , I have added some events of historical interest as Australia did not just suddenly appear over night, some are hearsay, some oral tradition, these events are marked with **  and are not confirmed as being accurate.


There were three phases of Bushrangers in Australia.

1st: The bolters,  transported Convicts trying to escape harsh treatment

2nd: 1850's - 60's, The Gold rush robbers, and "Wild Colonial Boys", Born in Australia.

3rd: Organised Gangs ,   Some thought it was "A Short Life and a Merry One"

Apart from a few exceptions,  such as Martin Cash, Frank Gardiner And Harry Power,  Bushrangers careers usually ended abruptly with their deaths, here are just a few names :-

Johnny Dunn 19 (Hanged) , “Bold" Jack Donahoe 22 (Shot dead) , Johnny O'Meally 22 (Shot dead), Steve Hart 22, Joe Byrne 23 (Shot dead) , Harry Manns 24 (Hanged) , Johnny Gilbert 25 (Shot dead) , Ned Kelly 25 (Hanged) , William Westwood ("Jacky-Jacky") 26 (Hanged) , Ben Hall 27 (Shot dead) , Fred Lowry 27 (Shot dead) , Matthew Brady 27 (Hanged) , Johnny Piesley 28 (Hanged) , John Lynch 29 (Hanged) , Fred Ward ("Thunderbolt") 34 (Shot dead) , Mark Jefferies 34 (Hanged) , Dan Morgan 35 (Shot dead) , Frank McCallum ("Captain Melville") 35 (Died in cell; possibly murdered) , Andrew George Scott ("Captain Moonlite") 37 (Hanged), John Thompson 16 (shot dead) , Young Rares 16 the "Boy Bandit." (Hanged)

Also there were three Bushrangers named Ned Kelly, and three called  James Kelly


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  The Kelly story begins

FebruaryJohn (red) Kelly, Neds father born

1820 BUSH RANGER HARRY POWER ( Johnson) born in county Waterford Ireland.                                 

1820 In Australia Between 1820 and 1840,  770 crims were hung,

1820 English King George 3rd died

In 1820  NSW, The Bushranger Underwood Gang started, William Underwood, John Donahoe, George Kilroy, William Smith later , John Walmsley , John Weber and others , later Donahoe and Weber shot by Police 1830, Underwood shot dead 1832, Smith and Kilroy hanged 1832, Walmsley turned informer

In 1820 NSW 60 Convict's bound for Norfolk Island  turned Pirate and steal the Brig "Wellington" the ring leaders were hung in Sydney the rest went to Norfolk Island


In 1821 Tassie 26 Bushrangers sentenced to death, 9 of them at Port Dalrymple

April : On the same day and time ten Bushrangers  were hung in Hobart Tasmania

1821 Brisbane Governor of New South Wales


03 Jan The Penal station at Macquarie Harbour was opened, known as "The Western Hell" by convicts

In 1822 Bushrangers Cheetham and Davies were bushranging around Tasmania they were joined by Bushranger Alexander Pierce, they were all captured, Cheetham and Davies both got life, but Pierce escaped, but was later arrested


In 1822 September Tassie Bushranger Thomas BodenhamBushranger James Brown, Bushranger William Kenelly Bushranger Alexander Dalton (1) , Robert Greenhill John Mathers Bill Cornelius Mat Travis (eaten)  and a gang of  escapees , from Macquarie Harbour Tassie got tangled up with Bushranger Alexander Pierce the Cannibal,  Thomas Bodenham was eaten by Alex Pierce , Alex Dalton (1) also murdered by Greenhill,  Later Pierce killed Greenhill,  Brown and Kenelly were caught, Brown died in hospital, Kenelly was hung, he still had portions  of Dalton's body on him for food.

In 1822 Bushrangers Alexander Pierce and Thomas Cox escaped jail, they went bushranging, but Pierce soon murdered Cox

In 1822, Tassie Bushrangers Jefferies, Hopkins and Russell escaped from Macquarie Harbour, Russell was later shot and eaten , later Jefferies and Hopkins was later caught by john Batman in 1826

In 1822 : Governor Macquarie Hanged 34 Bushrangers over the 12 months

1823 :

 David Reid arrived in Sydney, he founded today's Beechworth. 

New South Wales was no longer treated as a penitentiary but as a British colony

John Oxley went north in the "MERMAID". He examined Port Curtis, On his return he anchored at Moreton Bay, there he met a white man named Pamphlet, he had been living with a tribe of aboriginals. Pamphlet had been one of a boat's crew who had been blown out to sea and wrecked on Moreton Island. One had died of thirst, a second had started to tramp to Sydney, whilst the third, Finnegan, was out hunting with the chief , Oxley  learned of the existence of a large river falling into Moreton Bay. Oxley examined it for some miles from the mouth, he found  the largest fresh-water river on the east coast of New South Wales, named it the Brisbane river after the Governor




The earliest recorded discovery of Gold in Australia was made in 1823 at Bathurst, NSW by a Lands Department surveyor, James McBrien. McBrien was engaged in the survey of a road along the Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst and at one point of the survey recorded in his field book the following note: "At E. (end of survey line) 1 chain 50 links to river and marked gum tree. At this point I found numerous particles of gold convenient to river"

Following this report numerous gold discoveries were made in New South Wales but these were hushed up by a government fearful of the consequences it would have on the pastoral industry if workers left for the goldfields.


The first  goldfields

The first goldfields were alluvial or surface goldfields, where the gold could be washed or winnowed from the soil. The life of these goldfields was short. In Victoria in 1852, it was estimated that the value of gold found by diggers was an average of 324 oz per head. By 1856 it had fallen to 103 oz and it further declined to 78 oz in 1865. In Victoria in 1856, there were 115 000 prospectors (or alluvial diggers.) By 1865, the number had declined to 80 000. Of the Australians who went to the goldfields, many had hoped to gain a stake to establish a farm or a business. Many found employment with the mining companies, operating quartz-crushing machines or working on steam power generation. Others returned home or moved to other fields in Australia, New Zealand or America


In 1823, NSW The Bushranger gang of Edmund Burke, Charles James Fox and William Pitt roamed, in NSW, a dog they stole from Mr Sutter's place lead the police to their hide out, after a battle they gave up, they were all hanged at Parramatta.

1824 : 

James Quinn marries Mary McClusky 

Bushranger Alexander Pierce was hung in Hobart for murder and cannibalism

June :  a new, permanent Supreme Court of New South Wales heard its first case, a murder trial. the Legislative Council began operation, as the first stage in the reduction of the governor's autocratic law-making powers

June Fourteen convicts escaped from Macquarie Harbour, (Tassie)  Bushranger Matthew Brady became their leader, they turned Bushranger and made many robberies. they were later shot or hanged in 1826 Patrick Connolly was one convict ,the others were James McCabe, James Bryant, John Burns, John Downs, James Crawford later shot dead by soldiers, John Griffiths, George Lacey, Jeremiah Ryan, John Thompson , Charles Rider who was later killed, Isaac Walker, James Tierney and James Dunn., later James McCabe shot and killed a man called Renton, McCabe was kicked out of the gang, he was caught and hanged

September : The first settlement at Moreton Bay was founded , under the command of Lieutenant Murray of the 40th (South Lancashire) regiment, principally as a place of punishment for convicts who had committed offences after transportation to Australia

17 October : Hume and Hovell  set out from Hume's Lake George property south of Sydney  for a overland journey from NSW to VIC. , they had six armed men, bullock dray and perambulator to measure distance

08 November : H and H came across a great mountain range they called the South Australian Alps, about this time H and H began to squabble about which way to go next, Hovell wanted to go over the maintains but Hume wanted to go around, the party split and hovell gave up his trek and rejoined Hume.

16 November : Hume and Hovell discovered a river , naming it the Hume River, and inscribing a tree near the riverbank, later to be called the "Murray" river by Sturt in 1829, the tree is in Albury's Noreuil Park

20 November : H and H crossed the "Murray" somewhere near where the Hume weir is today

21 November : H and H find the Mitta Mitta river , which has gold it still today ! H and H split again but Hovell came back again, they found other rivers , Kiewa, Ovens, The Hovell river is now called the Goulburn.

25 November: Hume and Hovell pass by WHOROULY

26 November: H and H discovered the ninth river the king, The King river is named by Hovell after Governor KING, or maybe King parrots,  it runs into the Ovens at Wangaratta, They name Mount Buffalo because they thought it looked like a buffalo

27 November : H and H observe the plains around the two rivers Ovens and King and name them Oxley's plains 

  Hume and Hovell,  reach Corio Bay near  Geelong  (from the Aboriginal name for the area, Jillong), and saw Port Phillip but wrongly identified it as Western port Bay.

09 December : H and H climb a mountain they called Mt Disappointment

12 December : Hume and Hovell pass within a few K's of Bonnie Doon

14 December :Hume and Hovell climbed the hill at Beveridge, they called the plains that they saw in front of them Bland's plain after Hume's friend Dr Bland, he also called the hill Mt Bland, (now called Mt Fraser after H Frazer), when john batman purchased 500,000 acres of land from the Aboriginal tribes, a portion was reserved for George Mercer, and the area was known as Mercer's vale until it changed its name to Beveridge

16 December : Hand H reached Corio Bay, they thought it was Western port , but Hovell was one degree out in longitude, the trip took eleven weeks, they only stayed 24 hours then headed home.

31 December : homeward they cross over ovens river near Wangaratta, They named the river Ovens after Irish-born soldier and chief engineer of NSW Major John Ovens (an aide-de-camp to Governor Brisbane).

In 1824 Foundation of Brisbane city, The original site was not up the river, where the city of Brisbane was built, but at Redcliffe, on the shore of Moreton Bay

In 1824 George Arthur took over Van Diemen's Land , He believed that crime was a sickness and that prisoners should be broken like horses. He developed a system with seven levels of punishment with increasing severity as follows:

1) having a ticket of leave
2) being assigned to a settler
3) laboring on public projects
4) laboring on roads near civilization
5) laboring in a chain gang
6) being banished to an isolated penal settlement
7) laboring in chains in a penal settlement

Throughout its history as a convict settlement Van Diemen's Land was the scene of such a degree of callous brutality as can hardly have been equalled in any other country within civilized times

From 1824 onwards, there were two supreme courts in the Australian colonies, the Supreme Court of New South Wales in Sydney, and the Supreme Court of Van Diemen's Land in Hobart

In 1824 The name "Australia" was officially adopted by the British Navy.

In 1824 Crops fail in New South Wales due to severe drought.

In 1824 Photographer Daguerre began his research on developing a photographic technique, based on work performed by Thomas Wedgwood in 1806, using plates of metal and glass and variations in light sensitive coatings

In 1824 Bushranger Broughton was captured by John Batman in Tassie, he was tried for bushranging, murder, cannibalism, and was hanged


18 January : H and H arrive back in Appin NSW

25 February : Aboriginal Bushrangers Musquito (the black Napoleon) and his luit Black Jack hanged in Hobart , they roamed around Tassie for about two years they were hanged for the murder of Patrick Macartney

December  General Darling proclaimed that Van Diemen's Land ( Tasmania) becomes a separate colony

1825 Alteration of western boundary of New South Wales

The Bushranging evil was at its height when Arthur became Lieutenant-Governor. of Van Diemen's Land. An army of as many as a hundred resolute ruffians, well mounted and fully armed, roamed over the country , imposing a reign of terror upon settlers. They murdered, burnt, and pillaged, Gov Arthur HUNG over 100 Bushrangers in 1825-1826

1826 : 

March At Bathurst NSW, some soldiers questioned some Bushrangers, a battle broke out Bushranger Morris Connell was shot and killed by Corporal Brown

March : Bushrangers Williams and Murphy shot in head and killed, probably by another Bushranger Cowen, who had turned informer from within the gang,  he later received 100 pounds and a free pardon.

April NSW Bushranger John Downes hung, part of bushranger Matthew Brady gang

April Tassie Bushranger John Griffiths member of Brady gang , hanged

April Tassie Bushrangers Jeffries the cannibal and his partner Hopkins both hanged

April 26/29 Tassie Hobart, nasty Bushrangers Gregory, Hodgetts, MacKenny and Tilly all given death sentence

04 May :A man named Cowan who had joined Brady's gang later turned them into Lieutenant Williams of the 40th regiment, Cowan earned a free pardon, Bushrangers  Jeremiah Ryan, John Burns, James Bryant (1), Matthew Brady ,  Perry , James Tierney, John Thompson and Cannibal Thomas Jefferies were hanged, Matthew Brady  was shot in leg and cornered he gave himself up to John Batman the later founder of Melbourne  , Bushranger and Cannibal Jefferies was also captured by John Batman

05 May : Bushrangers  Tilley, Brown, Hodgetts and James Goodwin hanged (part of brady gang)

November :Sir Ralph Darling as the new Governor at Port Jackson sent off 20 soldiers and 20 convicts to colonise the area of Western Port,  although he was confused by previous reports of poor land, etc. from Collins

12 November  Captain Dumont D'Urville, in the corvette "L'Astrolabe" enters Western Port and spends six days exploring the area

24 November  "HMS Fly" (Captain F. A. Wetherall) as escort, and the colonial brig "Dragon" reach Western Port., commanded by Captain Wright, consisted of about fifty persons, half of them convicts

03 December Capt  Wetherall takes formal possession at Rhyll.

12 December:  The site for the settlement is chosen not far from the present township of CORINELLA , amongst the group was William Hovell,,he had been sent along with this group to continue exploration of the area he had to admit this was not the same area he had previously explored with Hume

In 1826 Tassie Bushranger James Dunne was a member of Matthew Brady gang, he was shot dead

1826 Photographer Joseph Nicéphore Niepce (1765-1833) made the first recognisable image formed by a camera obscura, a view from a window near Chalon-sur-Saône, with an exposure of some eight to ten hours .

1827 : 

08 January : Bushranger Patrick Dunn hung for murder

05 February : Peter Lalor born at Queens county Ireland , he lead the Eureka stockade rebellion at Ballarat.


July : The site at Corinella soon proved very unsuitable, little fresh water was found, the shore line mudflats and mangroves made life difficult for the new settlers. The colony did not last long, 

December : Governor Darling gave orders to abandon Corinella due to receding French threat

1827 Governor Darling to send Major Lockyer to occupy King George's Sound (Albany)  Darling's law to regulate the press. 

1827 Alan Cunningham explores the Liverpool Range and the Darling Downs. 

1827 Captain James Stirling in H.M.S. SUCCESS, made an examination of the Swan River--which the Dutchman Vlaming had named ('Swaenerevier') because he found there a species of black swan ('een soorte van swarte swanen').

1827 June or July : Photographer Frenchman Nicéphore Niépce produces first permanent photograph of a view from nature. Uses the photosensitivity of bitumen of Judea. it took eight hours.

1828  :  

Ellen Quinn born in north of IRELAND.

29 March  John Batman marries a convict girl, Eliza Callaghan (or Thompson) at St. John's Church, Launceston

John Pascoe Fawkner establishes the "Launceston Advertiser" newspaper.

The official attempts at settling Port Phillip and western port had failed  using soldiers and convicts , land was running  out in Van Dieman’s Land, the land hungry squatters now cast their eyes on the Western District of Victoria, 

Portland Bay had been used annually by whalers and sealers, William Dutton  appears to be the first to have landed here when he went sealing there, he  put up a hut,  and planted potatoes to help feed his party.

James Wishart on a sealing expedition to Julia Percy Island in the cutter "Fairy", establishes a new harbour which he calls Port Fairy.

1828 Enlargement of the Legislative Council of New South Wales. 

1828 Sturt discovers the Darling River


4 January  Photographer Daguerre formed a partnership with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce to improve the process Niépce had developed to take the first permanent photograph in 1826-1827. Niépce later died in 1833

20 April : Chief Commissioner Standish born

07 October : Charles Hope Nicolson born

1829, The explorer Captain Charles Sturt discovered the Hume River downstream at it's junction with the Murrumbidgee River. Not realising it was indeed the Hume, he named it the Murray River. Both names persisted for some time, Hume falling into disuse eventually in favour of Murray. Sturt gave  the great river the name of Sir George Murray, who happened to be Secretary of State for War and the Colonies for a few months in 1828-30. He was a man whom the Duke of Wellington took into his Cabinet because he liked him as a soldier, ' Murray had ceased to be a minister before the news reached England that his name had been given to the great river-system of Australia.

01June : Peel invested 50,000 pounds of his own money in the land scheme, and lost most of it. Stirling was appointed Governor, and he arrived in the PARMELIA with fifty-five passengers , The PARMELIA conveys first immigrants to Swan River

In 1829 Annexation of the Swan River. Whole of Australia claimed as British territory. Captain Fremantle of the Challenger, acting under instructions from England, took possession of the Swan River--

First record of a football game being played in Australia now a national game"  GO THE DONS"

In 1829 Tassie, Research Bay,15 Convict Bolters turned Pirate and seized the "Cyprus" , Later  four of the 15 reached London.


1830 :

20/08 :Policeman William Bradesh Montfort born

01 September : Bushranger "The Wild Colonial Boy" John (Jack) Donahoe was shot and killed by trooper Private Muggleston 

In 1830 September Bushranger John Beveridge (alias Anderson)  who sentenced in Hobart for bushranging and robbery under arms,  had taken  part in in stealing the Brig CYPRUS and taken to London,  was sentenced to death in Thames Police court (England) , for piracy. along with George J Davis ( alias Huntley) , William Watts (alias Williams) , Alex Stevenson (alias Telford) , another member Swallow  went back to Tassie to finish his sentence

October NSW Bushranger John Webber was shot dead by troopers, Webber was part of Will  Underwood Bushranger gang

04 October : Policeman Francis Hare born

November : Bushranger Entwistle was hung

1830  Act establishing trial by jury in New South Wales. 

1830 Sturt explores the Murray to the sea. 

1830 City of Perth founded in WA. 


 Richard Bourke becomes Governor of New South Wales (1831-1837).

1831 Dr Bland produced a pamphlet entitled " Journey of Discovery to Port Phillip NSW in 1824-5 By WH Hovell and H Hume Esquires"  complied from their field books and so the people of NSW learnt of the new lands to the South.  

1831 Start of government assisted free migration from Britain

1831 First steamship, the Sophia Jane, arrived in Sydney from England


 Issue of transportation of convicts to Australia comes under attack in England

In 1832 NSW Bushranger George Kilroy a member of the Bushranger Will Underwood gang which roamed Parramatta, arrested and hung


30 April : Bushranger Daniel Morgan born

26  May : Policeman John Sadleir born in Ireland  

May Tassie Bushranger John Whitehead killed Bushranger John Hopkins with ants in his boots

*July : Edward Henty  got wind of the good land on the south coast of the Australian mainland, and in July 1833 had visited Dutton at Portland Bay, returning to urge his father to take a look at the Portland area, and to secure land there

04 November NSW A group of assigned servants turned Bushrangers when they rioted, they were Anthony Hitchcock, James Ryan, John Poole and James Riley, Sam Parrot and David Jones they bailed up Constable Cook and started robbing, they were captured by Trooper Daniel Craddige and others, Jones sent to Norfolk, Poole, Payne, Ryan and Riley  were hanged at Darlinghurst

In 1833 Photographer Talbot served in Parliament. Unsatisfied with the results he obtained sketching with a camera lucida Talbot was inspired while on a trip through Italy in October 1833, to pursue serious photographic experiments

1834 :

 29 April : Policeman Alex Brooke Smith born

18 November : The Henty family settle at Portland, landed from schooner "thistle" they established a whaling station, their house was where the Richmond hotel stands today

December NSW  Charles Fisher Shepherd, Using his gun charged with birdshot,  shot the Bushranger Jack the Rammer  dead, other gang members Joseph Keys and Edward Boyd.

In 1834 NSW Monaro,  Bushranger Boyd shot dead by Police, he was a mate of Bushranger Arthur Keys , they both had a fight with Charles Shepherd,  Charles was shot by Keys and twice by Boyd, luckily Charles lived, later Arthur Keys and their bush telegraph BULL who worked for Charles Shepherd were hanged at Darlinghurst

In 1834 Bushrangers Emanuel Brace, John Jenkins and Thomas Tattersdale committed many small robberies around western Sydney, Jenkins shot dead Dr Robert Wardell , Brace turned informer, Jenkins and Tattersdale were hanged

1834 Act to establish Colony of South Australia. , The Dorsetshire labourers transported. 

1834 John Batman  was the principal founder of the Geelong and Dutigalla Association (later Port Phillip Association).

Early in 1834 Photographer Talbot began to experiment by employing a solution of the nitrate of silver for the purpose of preparing the paper; but the results were unsatisfactory


1835 : 

April : John Pascoe Fawkner purchases the "Enterprise"

29  May : John Batman arrives at Indented Head aboard the "Rebecca", he settled three servants and five Aboriginals from Sydney to mark his purchase, and returned to Launceston to report back to the Port Phillip Association, he had also explored the Yarra River. 

02 June Bushranger Joseph (arthur) Keys was executed 

06 June: Batman makes TREATY with the aborigines, for 30 small tomahawk axes, 100 knives, 40 blankets, 200 handkerchiefs, some flour, scissors, small mirrors, a few shirts and beads, he obtained 240, 000 hectares of land ( all the way from Point Lonsdale to Black Rock. ) he wanted to call Melbourne town " Batmania " it was also called "Bear brass".

08 June :   Batman wrote in his journal the famous words - "This will be a place for a village." This is true, his diary is on display at Melbourne state library

06 July William Buckley surrenders to Batman's party had come to warn the small party of a planned attack on them by the Aboriginals, for this act, he was later pardoned by Governor Arthur

August 1835: Photographer Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent images using paper soaked in silver nitrate and fixed with a salt solution. An image of The lattice window in the South Gallery of his home, Lacock Abbey, The negative is small (1" square), and poor in quality, Compared with Daguerreotypes the quality of the early Calotypes was somewhat inferior, but who cares it worked, Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper

16August : John Pascoe Fawkner's vessel, the "Enterprise" arrives from Van Diemen's Land

 26 August : Governor Bourke dismisses Batman's claim as the Crown owned all land

28 August : Buckley was granted pardon by Governor Arthur

30 : August "Settlers"   from Fawkner's crew left behind in Melbourne, Captain Lancey, George Evans, Evan Evans, James Gilbert his wife Mary, Charles Wise

10 October : Fawkner and family arrive in Melbourne

November : Batman returned with 500 sheep and 50 cattle,

November : Port Phillip Association founded in Launceston (originally as the Geelong and Dutigalla Association) by John Batman, Joseph Tice Gellibrand and others to arrange the private colonisation of the Port Phillip District.

19 December : The first white child born in Melbourne to Mrs Mary Gilbert

15 AUGUST 1835 The year Melbourne was founded fox made his first photo with salted paper

*1835*  The first squatter took up land on the river in 1835 at the future site of Albury  *

In 1835, Photographer Daguerre made an important discovery, believed to be by accident. An exposed plate was left in his chemical cupboard and found several days later. the exposed image had developed. Daguerre eventually concluded that this was due to the presence of mercury vapour from a broken thermometer. This important discovery made it possible to reduce the exposure time from some eight hours to thirty minutes, Though he now knew how to produce an image, it faded and it took two years to learn how to "fix" it permanently by immersing it in salt

1836 :

A Bushranger named Cummerford confessed to having in concert with two accomplices, murdered six Bushrangers, while they were asleep, on the track between Melbourne and Portland Bay. A police sergeant, two constables and a soldier were directed to accompany him to the scene of the crime , On arriving there, they found nearly two bushels of calcined bones, besides various relics of the murdered men

Two of the first settlers of Melbourne, Messrs. Gellibrand and Hesse, endeavoured to explore the Cape Otway ranges and were never again heard of;

*The first funeral in Melbourne —that of a child named Goodman —*

17 March : Major Mitchell left on his expedition, he explored the Lachlan, Darling, and Murray rivers on his way down to Portland, where he visited the Henty Family , on the return journey they joined the route of H and H near the Goulburn river, and crossed the Ovens valley.

MayThe magistrate, George Stewart visited Melbourne from Sydney, found 177 people settled upon or near the site of Melbourne, and they had 26,500 sheep.13 buildings were standing in Melbourne. Victoria's first prison was on batman's hill

June : Melbourne Census 177 people , 26,000 sheep, 100 cattle

14 September : The New South Wales Government recognizes the settlement at Port Phillip

29 September :Captain Hobson, of the HMS Rattlesnake arrived in the bay bringing with him Captain William Lonsdale who was the first administrator and the police magistrate of Port Phillip. he takes charge of the Settlement. The harbour was thoroughly surveyed by the commander of the "Rattlesnake," and it received his name , Hobson's Bay, one of his lieutenants gallantly bestowing upon Mount Martha and Mount Eliza the epithets they bear in honour of Mrs. Lonsdale and Mrs. Batman respectively Robert Russell arrived on another boat, 

A survey was soon  made by Mr. Russell and his assistants of the site of the present city of Melbourne, a spot which was sometimes spoken of as Bearbrass, and sometimes as Dutergalla, its native name

 October: While Major Mitchell was on his expedition, Many persons thought about moving stock "OVERLAND" to Port Phillip, The first party appeared to have been led by Joseph Hawdon, John Gardiner and John Hepburn, They left from Howes station on the Murrumbidgee river, they met part of Mitchells party at Gundagai.

05 October : Major Mitchell, camped on the Oxley plains, while there he named Futters range (now Warby range ) after a successful and public spirited colonist.  

 13  October : New South Wales Surveyor-General, Major Thomas Mitchell, in his Australia Felix expedition travelled through Benalla area , and his groom James "tally Ho " Taylor drowned trying to find a safe crossing point through the Broken river he was buried close by 

15 October: Surveyor Thomas Mitchell crossed the river on or near the townsite of Wangaratta, during his 'Australia Felix' expedition of 1836 which effectively delineated the first Sydney-Melbourne Road. As Melbourne emerged others followed in his wake, fording the river on the future townsite which became known as the Ovens Crossing Place, there is a tree travelling south over the bridge which has a plaque on it,

He later camped at a place by some ponds were wild violets were growing, he called the place violet ponds, later the township was set out as "violet creek", in 1846 Thomas Clarke built the royal mail hotel and "violet town" grew up on the spot

The country side of Victoria was called "Australia Felix" by Mitchell because of the fertility of the soil, as the soil was so wet and boggy, the wheels of his drays dug in and left tracks, and for some  time these tracks could be seen, this lead to a "road way" being formed and known as the "majors Line", which other travellers followed.

08  NovemberThe population of Port Phillip was found to number 186 males and 38 females; while the, aborigines within a circuit of thirty miles round the settlement were ascertained to consist of seven hundred men, women and children. They composed three tribes —the Wawoorongs, Boonoorongs, and Watourongs. It was with the last-named tribe that Buckley had become affiliated.

December The site for Adelaide was chosen  by the colony's far-sighted Surveyor-General, Colonel William Light, . The site was well-drained, had fertile soil and straddled the Torrens River, which guaranteed a ready water supply. The site was named after Queen Adelaide, wife of the British King William IV. Adelaide was unusual in that it was settled by free people - the city has no convict history. It was also unusual in that the British Government gave the colony no financial backing , South Australia was intended to be established on Kangaroo Island,

1836 *The first Europeans in the area of Chiltern, were the party of Joseph Hawdon who was engaged in overlanding cattle to Port Phillip in 1836. He apparently shot a 'black' dingo hereabouts and Black Dog Creek was named in its honour. Consequently, this name was also applied to the settlement when it first emerged*

In 1836 Bourke's grazing licences policy

In 1836 Melbourne's first vineyard planted in Collins st west 

In 1836 Melbourne's first Law Court convened by Police Magistrate Captain Lonsdale 


March,  the first flock of sheep brought overland from New South Wales reached the shores of Port Phillip, 

01 March :  Governor Richard Bourke visited the Port Phillip settlement and approved and named the grid of STREETS that Robert Hoddle (1794-1881) and his team of surveyors marked out, taking over from Robert Russell's  attempt, The streets are 99 feet wide,  The Port Phillip district received the name MELBOURNE , After Lord Melbourne. Bourke's  perception of the probable trend of development was less clear than that of Lonsdale, for he thought that Gellibrand's Point was the more important position, and he named it Williamstown,

Batman's Hill (removed in 1860) was the starting  or datum point, from which Melbourne was mapped. Hoddle's survey equipment comprised a circumferentor and surveyor's chain of prescribed length: 1 chain = 66 feet or 20.12 metres – the length of a standard cricket pitch.

The wider Melbourne grid originated at the datum point set at Batman's Hill, Hoddle set out the two primary section lines from that datum point . The lines went one mile north (approximately to the corner of Capel Street and Victoria Street in North Melbourne), and two miles east (creating the corner of Victoria Street and Hoddle Street, Collingwood) formed the basis for all land sales and today’s Melbourne metropolitan road network.

30  April the first child born in  Melbourne was baptised by the name of John Melbourne Gilbert

01 June : First land sales at Melbourne by Robert Hoddle on the south west corner of Collins & William Streets. his land sale book on display at state library, 

Land was also set aside for the  2nd Melbourne cemetery, now under the queen Vic market.

June : King William IV dies Queen Victoria takes over

01 August Sgt Arthur Steele born The man who may have brought down Ned Kelly at Glenrowan

31 December Population  of Port Phillip: 1,264 comprising 984 males and 280 females

In 1837 Township of Yackandandah settled , and township of Seymour

In 1837 There were over 23,000 assigned convicts in 1837.

In 1837 Bushrangers Comerford and Joseph Dignum, Victorias first "Bushrangers" roamed

In 1837 Tassie, The Bushranger Gang of Cash & Co started, Martin Cash, Lawrence Kavanagh, Thomas Jones, James Dalton, John Liddell, Jones also paired up with man called Moore 

In 1837 Hunter Brothers overlanded horses and cattle from Sydney, Euroa area an out-station

In 1837 Though he now knew how to produce an image, it was not until 1837 that Photographer Daguerre discovers that an image can be fixed permanent by immersing it in salt. This new process he proudly called Daguerreotype.


1838  :

In 1838 Many persons, flocks and herds were on the line of march from NSW to Port Phillip.

02 January : The mail service from Melbourne to Sydney starts. carried on horseback by  post boy 161/2  YO, James (john) Conway Bourke, , employed by Joseph Hawdon , who rode with Bourke on his first journey, he carried 15 pounds of mail, spare clothing , bedding and food, he also carried two horse pistols, his horse was speared by aboriginals, chased by wild dogs, and almost drowned several times, Hawdon received £1,200 per year for the contract between Melbourne and Yass - it was a fortnightly post, where mailmen rode alone and met at Yass to swap mail.

01 : JanuaryThe "Melbourne Advertiser & Port Phillip Gazette" first published by John Pascoe Fawkner. He did not have a licence so the newspaper was stopped after 17 issues, the first 9 of which were hand written.There is a copy on display at state library.

February : *The first settler of Wangaratta at the  Crossing place was Thomas Rattray who established a sly grog shop, a slab and bark hut with two rooms in Ovens st, about 50 yards from the river near where the Sydney hotel is today. and operated a punt service adjacent to the southern riverbank *

February : The claims based by Batman on his 'treaty' with the eight 'chiefs' were of course not recognized. The lands of Port Phillip were placed under the same regulations as affected the remainder of the territory of New South Wales, The Port Phillip Association pressed its case very pertinaciously, and the Government of New South Wales agreed to recognize its pioneering work to the value of 7,000 pounds, to be paid in land.  an agent of the company attended a land sale, and bought 9,500 acres near Geelong for 7,919 pounds, of which 7,000 pounds was remitted by the Government.

April : Dr GE Mackay arrived at the Wangaratta crossing  there he  found Colonel Henry White, and William Bowman, later bowman settled at Tarrawingee, later JW Chisholm took Myrhee run, Dr Mackay took up Wharroly run, 

11 April : The FAITHFULL  massacre of 8-12 men by 300 of the local blacks, at a place then called "winding swamp" brings about settlement at Benalla (broken river crossing) see 1906, members of the party were Bentley, James Crossley the overseer, Jim brown, an un named soldier. they had 400 cattle , 3500 sheep, in the morning Crossley sent out 2 shepherds but the aborigines killed them and scattered their sheep, they then turned on the main camp, killing 8-12 men, The survivors fled back to the Ovens to tell their story, the dead bodies were strewn over 7 miles. George Faithfull buried the dead under a big red gum, known as the Faithfull tree, it was in the park in Arundel st near the railway crossing.

April: Crossley the overseer with a party of Police return to the scene of massacre to bury the bodies, Governor George Gipps set up troops to protect the settlers


June : The first lady to settle at Wang was Mrs Julia Broadribb.

07 June Bushranger Donald Maynard and 3 other bushrangers were hung at Darlinghurst , Maynard roamed with Bushrangers Mayne, Hall and Michael Welsh, they killed one person and injured 3 others at Joe Rogers station at Currawang NSW.

21 June: Tassie, Bushrangers James Atterill,  William Davis (2) and Anthony Banks got life, James Reegan hung in Hobart. captured by Captain MacKenzie and his troopers, 

22 July: Because of on going clashes with the blacks, George Faithfull moved from their Bontharambo plain slab and bark hut and established the 'Wangaratta' cattle station on the Oxley plains, on the Ovens River ,The name derived from an Aboriginal term "Wanga"   meaning 'nesting place of cormorants', and "Ratta" to sit, others suggest it means "meeting of the rivers" as the township lays at the joining of the Ovens and King rivers., and today we know the town as Wangaratta.

08 September: Rev Joseph Docker who followed Major Mitchell's track, and Dr David Reid arrived at Wang crossing, Docker met George Faithfull, who told him he had abandoned Bontharambo Station, so Docker took up that station, 100,000 acres, .Docker treated the blacks well, and this seemed to have had good results in having no trouble with them, they had up to 44,000 sheep, they had their own cricket field and had horse races in the corner of their property, near the Vine Hotel., their house has been classified by the National Trust

19 September: Surveyor TS Townsend wrote about settlement around the ovens crossing, 

 In 1838 Dr Reid set up "Carrarrargamongee" station on the right bank of the Ovens river, Bowmans (tarrawingee)  was 4 miles further up the river, 8 miles up the river was Dr Makay's station (warroly), Grey had a station about 7 miles up the river on the left bank (the pelican), and Faithfull was a further 7 miles  up river (Wang).6 miles down river from the crossing on the right bank was Docker at Bontharambo, about another mile was Warby's (tamminick) about six miles up the King river on the left bank is William Croppers station (laceby) four miles further up the king on the same side Chisholm had his station (Myrhee), about 7 miles up on the left bank of the King river Broadribb had a station.

In 1838 William Clarke took up the "ovens crossing station", 16,000 acres, it followed the ovens downstream to Peechelba

In 1838 *William Cropper brought about the name "woolshed"*

In 1838 George Gipps  appointed Governor of New South Wales from 1838-1846.

In 1838 Gold was discovered at Golden Point  Victoria. , but kept secret

In 1838 The Templeton family and Eliza and John Forlonge, son Andrew,  arrive and settle at Seven Creeks estate 300,000 acres , Euroa , who imported some very good sheep into Oz, Saxon merino, Eliza died in 1859

*In 1838  John Foord set off from Yass with 1000 head of cattle, in search of fresh grazing land. With his business partners he established the 'Wahgunyah' run on what is now known as the Rutherglen district. *

In 1838 Gawler Governor of South Australia. Military settlement at Port Essington. 

In 1838 Melbourne's first school opens at Batman's hill 

In 1838  The area we now know as Avenel  was settled by Henry Kent Hughes he named his property 'Avenel' after a village in Gloucestershire, England., he leased 60,000 acres .Later the brothers Anderson took up the "Mangalore" run 83,000 acres, they called it Mangalore after a military post in India near Madras

1839 :

The  website author's great great grand parents settled in  Australia,  before many of the main people in the Kelly story, my great great grand fathers name was George Walker Johnson, the family photo is on display at Kyneton museum along with his watch and "Gold" travel pass as he was a MLA.

07 January 1839 The Daguerreotype photographic process developed by Louis Daguerre was announced in France, The French Government gave the Daguerreotype process free of charge to the whole world, Daguerre is awarded a state pension by the French government, It was the first successful process of photography. It created very good quality photographs, however they could not be reproduced, the surface was extremely delicate and the images were difficult to view from certain angles This was an image on a silver-plated highly-polished plate, or silver-coated brass or copper plate.  The image emerged when the plate was exposed to highly dangerous hot mercury vapour,  This led to a high mortality rate amongst the early practitioners

Fox Talbot began to publicise his own process. On 31 January 1839 he announced the discovery at the Royal Institution of a method of "photogenic drawing." The Calotype process consisted of coating translucent paper with silver nitrate and potassium iodide, thus forming silver iodide. Prior to use the coated paper is recoated with a solution of gallic acid, silver nitrate and acetic acid. The Gallinonitrate greatly increased the sensitivity .

The Calotype process created a paper negative which then could be transferred as positive prints, multiple times, also on paper. The sensitivity of the writing paper used was suitable only for contact printing, meaning that no enlargement took place and that the negative had to be the same size as the desired final print

The word "Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw") The word was used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. with his fame and position, made the word popular across the world. "It is a method of recording images by the action of light, or related radiation, on a sensitive material ".

13 January  Black Friday, disastrous bush fires ravaged Victoria from the Grampian Ranges to Gippsland taking 71 lives. The entire township of Noojee was destroyed


04 FebruaryLord Glenelg, Secretary of State for the Colonies,  appointed  Mr. Charles Joseph Latrobe Superintendent of the district of Port Phillip

06 May : John Batman Died, a very sick man, and buried in the 2nd Melbourne cemetery, now the site of the Queen Victoria Market, Before the market was built over the cemetery John Batman was dug up and moved to the Pascoevale cemetery It cannot be said that he was generously treated. Even his little house and garden of twenty acres were taken away from his widow, 


22 September: The Lancier was sunk with 7000 gold sovereigns worth $200,000 today

30 September : Charles Joseph La Trobe arrives in Melbourne  as Superintendent of the Port Phillip District. He was instructed from Governor Sir George Gipps in Sydney who  was given instructions from London. He called his house "Jolimont", a wooden house he had brought with him from England

In 1839:David Reid follows the Eldorado (reedy) creek to a series of hills he called may day hills later to be called Beechworth

October : At Wangaratta, Rattrays store  and punt was sold to William Clark, regarded as the 'Father of Wangaratta'. Beside Rattrays rough building, He built a slab-timber store with a bark roof and 4-cm slits in the slabs instead of windows, to prevent ingress for attacking Aborigines and to enable the egress of gunfire. These buildings were the first built at Wang,  He later built a larger and better structure which served as the Hope Inn, (1843) now the Sydney Hotel.

31  December : The estimated population of Port Phillip is 5,822 comprising 4,014 males and 1,718 females.

In 1839: William McKellar was the first settler at Benalla, he set up Lima station , Benalta means good water holes and Benalla "musk duck"

In 1839 Local history indicates a fellow called Andrew Ewen (Ewan or Ewing) while looking for lost horses stumbled across a lush valley, now called The Mansfield Valley, it was called Devils river in early days 

In 1839 Tassie Bushranger Rares escaped and joined Bushrangers Lawlor and Cowden,  Young Rares,  the "Boy Bandit." 16 (Hanged)

In 1839 NSW Bushranger Michael Welsh was hung at Darlinghurst for bushranging and robbery under arms around Yass.

In 1839 Geologists P E Strzelecki and Rev W B Clarke find gold at the Vale of Clwydd, near Hartley NSW.

In 1839 Squatters could have runs of up to 100,000 acres for an annual rent of ten pounds.

* In 1839 The first squatters took up land at Chiltern*

In 1839 On the banks of Hughes creek Near today's  Avenel  a stopover point was established on the road from Melbourne to Sydney  and was once an important coach stop for Cobb & Co,  *

In 1839 McMillan's first expedition to Gippsland. 

In 1839 A land survey around Merriang and Kalkallo was done, on the parish map of Merriang there was a 960 acre reserve , this later became Beveridge.

In 1839Abandonment of Moreton Bay Settlement

The daguerreotype process, the first practical form of photography, was made public in August of 1839

On Monday August 19th 1839, the Sciences Academy divulged the processes of heliography, of the physautotype and daguerreotype. Arago’s presentation overshadowed the two first ones Niépce ‘s name was hardly mentioned and as soon as forgotten. Only the daguerreotype is presented as having a future.

The Literary Gazette for 7 January 1839 read:

"Paris, 6th January 1839.

We have much pleasure in announcing an important discovery made by M. Daguerre, the celebrated painter of the Diorama. This discovery seems like a prodigy. It disconcerts all the theories of science in light and optics and, if borne out, promises to make a revolution in the arts of design.

M. Daguerre has discovered a method to fix the images which are represented at the back of a camera obscura; so that these images are not the temporary reflection of the object, but their fixed and durable impress, which may be removed from the presence of those objects like a picture or an engraving.

The early daguerreotypes had several drawbacks.



The first persons buried in the new settlement of Melbourne were a squatter named Charles Frank and a man named Flinders who was employed by Mr Frank as a shepherd. Frank and Flinders were axed to death by local Koories. they were buried on  Burial Hill , later called  Flagstaff Hill.*Europeans in pursuit of the "savages" responsible found a group of Koories in possession of some of Frank's property. This party shot dead 10 of the Koories on the spot. Police magistrate William Lonsdale investigated the shooting of the Koories, but no charges were laid due to a lack of evidence.


01January : Father P. B. Geoghegan opened a small School at St. Francis in Lonsdale Street

11 January: The large and fertile province of Gippsland (strzelecki naming the district after his friend, the Governor of New South Wales, Mr Gipps ), was partially explored by Angus McMillan, started  from a station near the Snowy Mountains They also discovered the Gippsland lake system including its major tributary rivers.

13 Jan Tassie, Six pirate Bushrangers were arrested at Woolnorth  and charged with trying to steal a schooner "Edward" and escape to the Pacific, Bushranger Henry Sears got death for attempted murder.

27 Jan Tassie Three pirate Bushrangers took over the schooner "Waterwitch" , they kept the captain on board, who brought them back to port and put them ashore.

02February  Paul Edmund Strzelecki and James MacArthur began an exploratory journey from south eastern New South Wales to Port Phillip. Strzelecki climbs and names Australia's highest mountain - Mount Kosciusko , named after the Polish hero

03-05 MarchFirst horse race meeting at Flemington race course

16 March : Bushrangers Hughes ,and Curran  were hanged at Adelaide Gaol

May: Dr Mackay's station at Wang is attacked by black's one of his servants is murdered, his hut and stores burnt, and 4 horses killed

June NSW Bushranger William Hutchinson who had been robbing for several years after he escaped from jail, was captured and sent back to jail.

10 June The parish lands of Merriang and Kalkallo were offered for sale, 960 acres was reserved on the Merriang Map, that reserve became Beveridge, the non-arable land in the area became the stock run Mercer Vale Station. It was owned by James Malcolm from 1840-1845

21  November : John Pascoe Fawkner establishes the "Geelong Advertiser" newspaper with James Harrison.

02  December  First recorded robbery of a Port Phillip mail took place..

30 DecemberPublic Meeting in Melbourne petitions Queen Victoria for separation from NSW

31 December : Population of Port Phillip: 10,291 comprising 7,254 males and 3,037 females

1840 transportation  from England and Ireland to New South Wales ends

In1840 Eyre starts for the centre of the continent. Strzelecki's journey through Gippsland 

In 1840 More settlers arrive in the Wangaratta district, Joseph Bould took up "Boorhamen", John Evans took up "whitefield", Edmund Macartney "Whorouly", Dr Makay set up "Grange" at Everton,

In 1840 Captain Fury Baker set up Barambogie on Black dog creek  near Chiltern, Baker changed the name of his station to Eldorado, the gold miners who worked reedy creek named the small town that sprang up there after his station "Eldorado" 

In 1840 Jas Gullifer "Lilliput", Rowan and Green brothers " Peechelba", Edmund Bond " Bangemero", Dominick Farrell "The hollow" at Edi.  

In 1840 Bushranger George Beavors sent to jail for life for attempted murder and piracy (NSW and Tas)

In 1840 SA Bushrangers Green and Wilson roamed the Lyndoch district, they were later caught in Melbourne and jailed in Adelaide for robbery under arms

In 1840 NSW Bushranger James Jackson was with the Jew boy gang, he was arrested and sent to jail for life

In 1840-41 NSW Bushrangers Scotchie and Whitton roamed around the Lachlan river district, they were very active then disappeared.

In 1840 First practical negative-positive process of photography. Capable of producing multiple copies of any given image, the Calotype (also called Talbotype) was invented by William Henry Fox Talbot in 23 September of 1840

At the time the sensitivity of the process was extremely poor. Then, in 23 September 1840 Fox Talbot discovered the phenomenon of the latent image. It is said that this was a chance discovery, when he attempted to re-sensitise some paper which had failed to work in previous experiments; as the chemical was applied, an image, previously invisible, began to appear. This was a major breakthrough which led to drastically lowered exposure times - from one hour or so to 1-3 minutes. Talbot he called the improved version the calotype (from the Greek "Kalos", meaning beautiful)

In 1840 The Whitty family arrive and start farming near Woodstock    The town of Woodstock was settled and named by James hunter Patterson. 

1841 :

01 January : John (RED) Kelly is sentenced to seven years transportation (a one way trip) to a penal  colony in Van Diemen's land ,

January NSW Bushrangers John South and William Gunn, part of Jew Boy gang sent to jail

February Maconochie was assigned to work with the toughest repeat offenders at Norfolk Island. Governor Gipps ordered him to keep old and new prisoners separate , Maconochie introduced a range of better conditions for the convicts for a three year trial, but later with Major Childs in charge it turned back to harsh punishment and was still a hell hole, and convicts preferred death to life there..

16 March: Bushranger Edward Davis (the Jew boy) and  Bushrangers of the Jew boy gang James Bryant (2), Robert Chitty , John Shea, Jack (john) Marshall,  Jack (james) Everett , Richard Glanvill and  Thomas Maguire were hanged at Sydney

12  April : The Supreme Court sits in Melbourne for the first time in a building on the south-west corner of King and Bourke Streets

April  Bushrangers Jonas Hopkins and James Bloomfield bailed up Henry Bonney robbed him of 35 pounds, they were joined by another bushranger James McCallum,  later Bloomfield and   McCallum and Hopkins were caught for robbery under arms and given death, commuted to life

10 MayA  young officer  stepped off the ship "Lord Glenelg" at Port Adelaide and made his way to Government House. The ship carried an important despatch for Gawler. The officer was Captain George Grey, and the despatch informed the Governor that, as he had drawn bills in excess of the authority given to him, he had been relieved of his office, and that Grey had been appointed to succeed him.

13 May 1841, Possibly the first photo taken in Australia in Sydney,  by a Frenchman Captain Lucas at the store of Joubet, and Murphy, they were agents for French ships "a trail of the daguerreotype" the picture was of Bridge st and part of George st
The arrival of naval captain, Captain Lucas in 1841, was a noted in the Australasian Chronicle for 13 April of that year. research has filled in much of the details.
Captain Augustin Lucas (1804-1854) was probably the brother of the captain of the French ship 'Justine' that docked in Sydney at then end of March.


18 July : James and Mary Quinn and family arrives in Melbourne, from Ireland. they arrived aboard the "England"


In September 1841 At Goulburn,  Bushranger James Berry  and  Bushranger Paddy Curran were convicted and remanded to  Berrima Jail, on the way they escaped and killed Constable Maguire, they were recaptured and Berry hung for Maguire's  murder,  Bushranger Paddy Curran was hanged at Berrima , for murder and rape

04 October : - The Foundation Stone of St. Francis' Roman Catholic Church was laid by the Reverend Patrick B. Geoghegan.

31 December Population of Port Phillip: 20,416 (14,391 males and 6,025 females

In 1841 Constable Thomas Lonigan born , later shot at Stringybark creek.



In 1841 Bushranger Stephen Brennan, at Norfolk Island murdered a fellow convict Patrick Lynch, Brennan was hung

In 1841 NSW Bushrangers Henry Steele and Charles Vaut, raided Rev John Garvan's house, they shot at him and made his wife sit on a fire to give their cash, they were caught the next day and sent to jail

In 1841 NSW Bushranger Thomas Willmore was hanged at Bathurst for highway robbery and murder, he killed with no mercy, at one point he was bailed up himself, but the other bushranger fled after gun battle.

In 1841 The "James Matthews" sunk. This was originally a Portuguese slave trader named Don Francisco. It was captured and renamed, . it Sunk  off Western Australia. Located in 1973,

In 1841. First wharf built in Melbourne by Captain Cole

In 1841 Peter Snodgrass fought a duel with Redmond Barry


31 January Fox Talbot gave a paper to the Royal Society of London. The paper was entitled "Some account of the Art of Photogenic drawing, or the process by which natural objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the artist's pencil."

8 February1841:  Fox Talbot patents his process under the name "Calotype".a negative-positive process on paper that employs the latent image developed by gallic acid, an act which considerably arrested the development of photography at the time

1842 :

02  January : John (red) kelly arrives  in Van Dieman's land

20 Jan  Melbourne's first public execution,  The prisoners were two Aboriginal men known as Bob and Jack, who had been accused of murdering two whalers in the colony's Westernport district. Unable to give evidence in their own defence, or to call Aboriginal witnesses, they were found guilty by the settler jury. Hang men John Davis and John Styleman . The hanging took place outside the Old Melbourne Gaol on the crest of the hill, the gallows was two posts in the ground and the hanging beam between them. There were planks of wood, hinged at one end for the prisoners to stand on. The planks were held up at the other end by a pile of rubble. The idea was a rope was to be pulled which moved the rubble and that released the plank, however the plank jammed on the rubble and the two prisoners started to choke, a bystander could see the problem and un jammed the plank, and the two prisoners hanged .

April  NSW  Bushranger John Lynch (alias dunleavy) hung at Berrima for many crimes and robberies and confessed to ten murders

28 June  Melbourne's Second Public Execution was a gang of Bushrangers known as the Plenty River Gang.

Charles  Ellis (alias Yanky Jack), Martin Fogarty , Daniel Jepps (Gepps) and Jack Williams , were raiding farm houses and robbing people around the Dandenong area, when it become to hot there they moved over to the Plenty River area.  They made a  raid on Campbell Hunters house on the Plenty river. They made a mistake and stayed to have breakfast, and the Law caught up with them. Gang member Jack Williams shot dead by Oliver Gourlay, after a hand to hand fight.  After the gun battle that lasted one hour , Ellis, Fogarty and Jepps  surrendered, all 3 hung on the hill beside the Old Melbourne Gaol north of Melbourne, all 4 buried together.


Sgt Michael Kennedy born , later shot dead at Stringybark Creek.

05 Sept Mel "Roger" a Aborigine executed after tried and found guilty. The hanging took place outside the Old Melbourne Gaol on the crest of the hill,

In September Tassie Bushrangers George Griffiths Thomas Hurn, William Lambeth, Samuel Harrison and John Gunn arrested by Constables Flynn, and Marsden,  sentenced to death, commuted to life 

15 October :NSW, Six pirate Bushrangers were put on trial for attempted murder of Sergeant Whitehead, when they tried to steal the brig "Governor Phillip", they were Henry Sears, Thomas Whelan, John Jones, George Beavers, Nicolas Lewis and James Woolf, prisoners Bartley, Kelly, Maclean and Moore were killed in the battle, Sergeant Whitehead was wounded, second mate Christopher Lucas was badly wounded , both recovered, Henry Sears was hanged, the rest got life

In1842 By an Act of the Imperial Parliament,   the inhabitants of Port Phillip were empowered to send six representatives to the Legislative Council of New South Wales

In1842 Municipal government was bestowed upon Melbourne. Mr. Henry Condell was the first mayor 

9th December 1842, First advert in oz, in the Australian for photographic portraits, Mr Goodman
one guinea including frame, took about 5 seconds exposure on bright day daguerreotype

In 1842 December Tassie Bushrangers "Convict " Moore, Thomas Jones , James Dalton and John Liddell , bailed up Wiiliam Fields home, Moore was caught and given death, commuted to life.  

In 1842 NSW Bushrangers William Lynch, John McCann, and James O'Donnell, all escapees,  roamed around Liverpool, they were arrested by Chief Constable Ryan, they went back to jail for life

In 1842 NSW Bushrangers Wilson, Long Tom and Long Ned  bailed up Mr Bigge, but he fought back, they were captured with help from a Mr Robertson, all 3 bushrangers got death.

In 1842 NSW Bushranger John Wright committed many robberies around Bathurst, he shot Mr Cunningham dead at Long Swamp, Wright was caught and given death.

In1842 Robert Lowe in New South Wales. 

In 1842 Act for the Government of N.S.W. and Van Diemen's Land passed

In 1842 Infantile Cholera and Dysentry now killing many children

In 1842 6,100 immigrants arrived by sea, of whom 4,136 came under the bounty system

In 1842 Alexander Maconochie's suggestion led to forming the Port Phillip Native Police force so that the bush skills of the Aborigines could be used in tracking and detecting criminals

In 1842 Tassie Bushrangers Hogan and Armytage roamed around Deloraine, Hogan was caught and sent to Norfolk. Armytage disappeared

In 1842 Martin Cash was Bushranging around Tassie,  he shot and killed Policeman Winstanley, Cash was sentenced to death, but commuted to life in jail.

In 1842 March NSW Bushrangers John Morgan and John Wilkinson went on a robbery spree around Berrima, bailing up everybody they came across  , they were caught by Chief Constable Hildebrand, they got life.

In 1842 Bushranger George Cumsdon was captured in Tassie he has been operating for a couple of years, he was hung

In 1842 The first photographer to set up business in Sydney in 1842 Mr Goodman

The cyanotype process was invented in 1842 by Sir John Herschel but was most popular around the turn of the century. The brilliant blue images have a matte surface. Because iron salts are used (rather than silver compounds) used to make "Blue Prints"

Between 1842 and 1967, 186 prisoners were executed in Victoria , PLUS one American service man during WW2.

135 of them at Old Melbourne Gaol, When the OMG closed in 1924 the trap door and Hanging beam were moved to Pentridge Prison, and 11 more executed on the gallows in D division at Pentridge in Melbourne.


1843 :

May 1843 : Bushrangers John Conway and Riley Jeffs in Tassie performed many holdups, when they tried to rob the homestead of James Gilligan, Constable William Ward was there visiting, Conway shot him dead, later they were hanged guilty of murder

In1843 At the crossing place near  the river at Wangaratta John Bond built his Slab and bark store and inn, it was also a  postal outlet , this was opposite Clarke's store, .both stores had business from the punt users..

In 1843 Thomas Carrington newspaper artist born

In 1843 Constable Michael Scanlon born , shot dead at Stringybark creek.

In 1843 David Reid takes up land at the head of Reedy creek

RABBITS were already becoming a problem as reported in Benalla newspaper, " credit " has always been given to a farmer in about 1855 for bringing rabbits to Australia

In 1843 Goodman  took first pictures in Tasmania August 1843

In 1843 The first post office at Wangaratta opened , it was then called the ovens crossing post office

In 1843  The township of Seymour was surveyed and named after lord Seymour a British cabinet minister, Emily street became the main street. John Clark had a punt across the river.


In 1843 Bushranger Martin Cash was caught and given Death for murder of Constable Winstanley,  but later commuted to life on norfolk island, he was released many years later for good behaviour, the other members of his Bushranger gang were Kavanagh, Thomas (tom) Jones, James Dalton (2) and Liddell , they were all captured and jailed, later  Kavanagh sentenced to death, with Jacky Jacky on 13th October 1846

1844 :

The Quinn family settle in  WALLAN    

30 April : Bushranger George Jones hung

October  Ludwig Leichhardt left the Darling Downs on an expedition to find a new route to Port Essington, near Darwin. After a perilous journey of 15 months and over 5000 kilometres, his party finally reached Port Essington. They had travelled through good country, naming the Dawson, Mackenzie, Isaacs, Suttor and Burdekin Rivers, as well as Expedition Range and Peak Range. One of his party, John Gilbert, was killed by aborigines.

Pastoral pioneer , James Kirkland, became the holder of the Urowa pastoral run (1844-51), which in time became the name of the town and district., Urowa, or Euroa, is thought to be derived from an Aboriginal word meaning push or joyful. The former is the more likely.

In 1844 Tassie Bushrangers John Fletcher and Henry Lee robbed Daniel Griffin , they were hanged

In 1844 Bushrangers Michael Cogan and Richard Gordon roamed around Tassie , they were caught and sent to jail


 In 1844 Around this time Ben Warby set up a station at a range of hills which had been called Futters Range, by Major Mitchell  , His land was on the Taminick Plains, on the western side of the ranges, these ranges are now called the warby ranges next to Glenrowan

In 1844 Convicts shipped to Port Phillip. Sturt's journey to the interior. Leichhardt's first exploring expedition.


01Jan Melbourne Gaol's first cell block opened in Russel St, with 59 men, 9 women.


11 February: John Batman's son, John Charles Batman, drowns in the Yarra Yarra River

11 July: John (red) Kelly was granted his TICKET of leave 

1st August  Photographer G.B. Goodman went to Melbourne

04 August A fierce storm drives the emigrant ship "Cataraqui" ashore on King Island. Of the 115 people on board, only 9 survived

In1845 John William Lindt (photographer) born , he took picture of Joe Byrnes body

In1845 The " Whitefield " run, today called the town of whitfield, was named by William Clark held until 1853

In1845 David Reid settles the township of Alans Flat ( a very rich gold town  ) 

In1845 Grey appointed Governor of New Zealand

In1845 The Great Potato Famine begins. A blight attacks the plants and destroys the crops. Ireland is one of the worst effected. Many Irish people decide to migrate

In 1845 Bushranger Nowlan Cashan sometimes with an Bushranger accomplice Mac Mcintyre,  were very active between Bathurst and Mudgee, he bailed up a coach, and the passengers shot back, he was captured, and sent to Cockatoo Island, but he escaped,  Later Cashan was caught by Mr Andrews when he tried to rob a station near Gundagai NSW., both Cashan and Macintyre were hung with others

In 1845  Mr ST Gill imported the first daguerreotype camera into south oz


1846 :

Constable Thomas McIntyre born survived Stringybark creek shoot out

10th Jan  Goodman arrived in Adelaide. he later went back to syd and sold gear

02 June : The "Argus" newspaper founded by William Kerr  ,The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne from 1846 and closed in 1957. Widely known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left leaning approach from 1949 when it was acquired by the London based Daily Mirror newspaper group.

In 1846 Prisoners at Norfolk Island suffering from bad food mutinied, led by Bushranger William Westward,  John Price cancelled Maconochie's reforms and ruled with the lash

13 October: Bushranger William Westward (Jacky Jacky) he killed 3 men in the riot and  Bushranger Lawrence Kavanagh , John Gardner, John Jackson,  , Bushrangers William Duncan, Abraham Farrer , William Pinkthorne, Henry Whiting, William Scrimshaw, were  hanged for riot on Norfolk Island, Bushranger John Booth was hanged  for being accomplice of William Westward (Jacky Jacky ) in the murder of Policeman John Morris

In1846 St. Francis Roman Catholic Church, officially opened

In 1846 George Vincent took up GLENMORE station near Whitfield.

In 1846 Bowmans Tarrawingee house was sold to Dr Francis Murphy, Bowman moved away, he is remembered as being one of the first settlers at Wangaratta with the names Bowmans Forest and Bowmans Cemetery near Everton

In 1846 Strathbogie was first settled

In *1846 The beginnings of Glenrowan  brothers James Hutton Rowan and George Christian Rowan owned 16,000 acres of grazing land in the area. *  

In 1846 Fitzroy 'Governor-General' of Australia. Lieutenant Yule hoists British flag in New Guinea

In 1846 First bridge over the Yarra River is completed


In 1846 Tassie, Tamar district,  Bushrangers George Jamieson and a man called Jones , were caught and jailed for life

In 1846 Tassie Bushranger Henry Jenkins (alias Billy from the Den) robbed a lot of people he was jailed for life

In 1846  Tassie Bushrangers William Timothy (alias Dido) (alias Driscoll) and his Bushranger mate called  Wilson roamed pipers river, until caught by Constable Davis

In 1846 Tassie Esk river,  Bushrangers Henry Ford and Henry Smart , robbed people at gunpoint in their houses, while robbing Rev Browne's house , Chief Constable Midgely  called in to see him and caught the two red handed, got death commuted to life

1846 COLLODION was First formulated , collodion was, and still is, used as a medical dressing. as adhesive to close small wounds Made from cotton (or cellulose), soaked in nitric and sulphuric acids, it is thoroughly washed and dried, and then dissolved in ether and alcohol. making a highly flammable, colourless or yellowish syrupy solution , from the Greek, kollodes, glutinous, glue like


1847 :

27 Jan Mel Jeremiah Connell executed after tried and found guilty.

25 March The first wooden bridge at Avenel was completed

30 April Mel Bobby and Ptolemy  aborigine's executed after tried and found guilty

June 1847 G B Goodman sells his gear to Issak Polack and disappears, that was the last of our first photographer ,it was a very difficult job, he had to make and prepare his chemicals, prepare plates, distil all the water for washing, repair any faults. had to wait up to year for photo supplies from France or England, then one guinea was a lot of money and too expensive for most people, a disadvantage of Daguerretype also the the original plate was the finished plate and could not be reproduced

26th August 1847 Photographer Douglas Kilburn opened in lt Collins st

In1847 Melbourne proclaimed a City

29 Nov Mel John Healey executed after tried and found guilty

In 1847 James Meldrum buys Thomas Bond's slab and bark Inn, store and post office at Wang

In 1847 Gold found in Port Phillip, but kept a secret.

In 1847 The Gladstone Colony at Port Curtis


1848 :

11 January : John (red) kelly is set free after serving his term, and moves to Port Phillip (Melbourne) 

01 Aug Mel Augustus Dauncey (dancey) executed after tried and found guilty

13 December  First government assisted immigrants arrive at Moreton Bay

In1848 Gold discovered in California (announced in December 1848)

In 1848 The township of Wangaratta was named by surveyor Thomas Wedge 

In 1848 Melbourne elects Lord Grey to the Legislative Council. Leichhardt's last expedition

In 1848 Port Phillip Turf Club obtains a lease of Flemington Race course site

In 1848 William McKeller applied for an extension of his Benalta run but a clerk took the name to be  Benalla and its been called that ever since,  Benalta means good water holes and Benalla "musk duck"

In 1848 At Avenel   Henry Kent Hughes sells "Avenel Estate" to Bowen and Lloyd Jones

In 1848 A cousin of Photographer Nicephore Niépce, Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, perfected a process of coating a glass plate with white of egg sensitised with potassium iodide, and washed with an acid solution of silver nitrate. This new albumen process made for very fine detail and much higher quality. However, it was very slow, hence the fact that photographs produced on this substance were architecture and landscapes; portraiture was simply not possible



01 January  The "Port Phillip Herald" newspaper becomes the "Melbourne Morning Herald".

04 April: Privy Council meets at Buckingham Palace, Queen Victoria approves the granting of Separation of Victoria and NSW..

In 1849 Californian gold rush. A great many Australians sailed for California

In 1849 Governor Fitzroy approached the Colonial Office, advocating a policy for the exploitation of mineral resources. He requested a geologist, which led to the appointment of Samuel Stutchbury. This gave approval for the mining of mineral resources.

In 1849 The Town of Avenel was established proper, when the Government offered land for sale, the first blocks of land were bought by William Henry Mutton, wife Elizabeth, and John Burrows (died 1898), these blocks were part of the Avenel "run" Later Elizabeth Mutton leased 40 acres to "Red Kelly" Ned's father.

In 1849 The Convict ship " RANDOLPH" arrived in Hobson's Bay, turned away after much local resistance to convict immigration. 

In 1849 Port Essington abandoned

In 1849 *Euroa was surveyed *

October 1849 Photographer Kilburn displays first colour dag photos made in Sydney, Kilburn received all the latest info from London and was happy to share the info

1850  :

03 January  Adhesive postage stamps first issued in Victoria. They featured Queen Victoria and were the first stamps in the world to be printed using the lithography process

03 January: The first refrigeration plant in the world was built by James Harrison in Victoria. The process he developed relied on the formation of ice by the evaporation of ether

05 August : The "Australian Colonies Government Act" receives royal assent in Britainwhich made Victoria  a separate colony, Mr. Latrobe being appointed its first Governor.

11 November: News that the "Australian Colonies Government Act" had been passed by the House of Lords reached Melbourne aboard The ship "Lysander"

15 November  : John (red) kelly and Ellen Quinn are married at ST FRANCIS CHURCH Melbourne by Father Gerald Ward, and become part of a LARGE FAMILY TREE

15 November Opening Ceremony of Princes Bridge, Later in 1851 incorporated into Separation celebrations a procession of 6,000 people took 2 hours to cross the bridge

05 December : Pentridge Gaol, recently completed, receives its first prisoners.

In 1850 Measles first reported in Australia

In 1850 Western Australia becomes a penal colony.

In 1850 University of Sydney founded. 

In 1850Australian Colonies Government Act passed.

In 1850  Railway from Sydney to Goulburn built

In 1850 The Inverlochy Castle coaching Inn at Beveridge is built by Angus Cameron

1850 William Hetzer was one of the earliest to do Talbotypes, and it seems he was the first to trim pics in oval and circles

1850 Englishman Frederick Scott Archer coats glass plates with sticky wet collodion and silver salts



02 January: Sir Charles Fitzroy appointed Governor-General of all the Australian Colonies.

27 JanuaryJulian Ashton newspaper artist born , town of Addle stone, Surry, England

Thursday 06 February, A fierce wind arose,  the temperature in Melbourne rose to 47° centigrade at 11 am, By some inexplicable means it wrapped the whole country in a sheet of flame. Men, women and children, sheep and cattle, birds and snakes, fled before the fire in a common panic.  the forests were ablaze, Farm houses, fences, crops, orchards, gardens, haystacks, bridges, wool-sheds, were swept away by the impetuous on-rush of the flames,  Many lives were lost, and the value of the property and live stock destroyed on "Black Thursday " can only be vaguely conjectured. Approximately 12 lives, 1,000,000 sheep and thousands of cattle were lost.

February  A man named Hargraves found gold in near Bathurst

25 February : Mary Jane Kelly born and baptised at Kilmore , but sadly died young

22 May : Proclamation issued in New South Wales declaring all gold found on private or Crown land to be the property of the Crown.

June VIC Bushrangers Christopher Farrell and Owen Suffolk robbed the mail coach near Bruce's creek , tied up their victims and left them tied to trees, caught and given ten years in jail

June A reward offered for the first "official" gold discoveries in Victoria.

01 July: The State of Victoria named after Queen Victoriabecame SEPARATE from New South Wales The first state boundaries are established and the treaty is signed under the separation tree in Melbourne's Botanical Gardens.

07July : James Esmond discovers gold near Clunes, 35km north of Ballarat, VIC

July    Gold was discovered in WARRANDYTE  Vic.

15 JulyCharles Joseph Latrobe becomes the first Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony of Victoria

20 July  Gold  discovered at Mount Alexander.  

08 August  Gold discovered in the Buninyong Range, near Ballarat. 

01 September : A Gold Licence fee of 30 shillings a month was introduced to pay the cost of providing police on Gold fields.

September : The first Gold to arrive in England from Australia aboard the "Thomas Arbuthnot" about 800 pounds in value

18 Oct Mel Patrick Kennedy executed after tried and found guilty.

October : La Trobe visited the gold fields 

31 December  Victoria's population approximately 20,000 people

First Police station in the Ovens area opened at Wangaratta .

Township of Mansfield surveyed, with street names, land was excised from local "runs"

Arthur Burman (photographer) born

In 1851 The Forlonge family take over Seven Creeks Station at  Euroa,  It was at Seven Creeks that the first fine-wool Saxon merino sheep in Victoria were introduced  by Eliza Forlonge who had selected the sheep in Saxony.

Edward Hargraves returned from California and washed gold at Summer Hill Creek, Ophir. , he received recognition and financial rewards. The early rush to the NSW fields led to a serious decline in the population in Victoria, so a reward was offered for the discovery of gold in that region. Several claimants came forward, 

In 1851. New Princes bridge in Melbourne opens

1851 10 July Photographer Daguerre  (pronounced Dagair) died at the age of 62.  this  ended an era in discovery, Ironically the same year the wet collodion process was introduced by Frederick Scott Archer of England, also called the Wet Plate-which quickly replaced the Daguerre process.

The collodion process required that the coating, exposure and development of the image should be done whilst the plate was still wet.

Another process developed by Archer with help from Peter Fry was named the Ambrotype , which was a direct positive, This type of photograph is also called ""Melainotype"" in the European continent, Ambrotypes became very popular,  because they were much cheaper than daguerrotypes , they took  less time to expose the negative than the daguerreotypes and additionally it could be viewed for any angle. However, its popularity declined  when the carte de viste process was introduced.

The silver image was produced by under-exposing wet collodion on glass negative, bleaching it, and then placing a black background, usually black velvet or paint behind it. This method is known as a direct positive or Collodion positive since one uses the actual image and no printing. The process required the negative to be process immediately after exposure and can be thought of as an instant photograph of the 19th century, They are usually found in Leather union cases with a gilt matting to cover the uneven edges of the photo


In 1851 At Beveridge  Andrew and Margaret Beveridge  built an Inn called "The Hunters Rest" or "Tryste Inn" but better known as Beveridge's inn or "Beveridge's"

In 1851 At Avenel, the first hotel was the "Avenel Arms" or Bignells, then is was called the "Imperial"

The second hotel was the "Royal Mail", built by James Hilet, who sold it to Mr Ruffy, who sold it to Esau Shelton, it became a coach change station for Cobb and Co. Then it took 24 hours to go from Beechworth to Melbourne.



Ellen Kelly's sister, Kate Quinn marries Jack Lloyd

Helen Quinn marries Timothy Ryan

January : Redmond Barry is elevated to supreme court  Judge

February : Gold is discovered at SPRING CREEK at May day hills (Beechworth), upstream from where the Newtown bridge is.

February : A large shipment of gold from Australia lands in England , valued at 81,000 pounds

02 April: At 2am, the barque "lady Nelson" while anchored in Hobson's bay, is raided by 22 robbers, they take 30,000 pounds worth of gold, in 23 boxes,  only 4 arrested, the rest and the gold disappeared. 

10 April : Francis Hare arrives in Australia

18 April : The first white child born at Avenel, Eliza Jane Mutton, she went to school with Ned Kelly, she married J C Price in 1870, when she died in 1937, she had 200 descendants

April : The barque "Eglinton" sunk, she carried $100,000 in gold

12 May : The township of Wodonga is proclaimed

22 May Mel James Barlow executed after tried and found guilty

28 may : Bushranger John James convicted of robbing the "Nelson", Bushrangers James Morgan and James Duncan also arrested for the robbery, given 15 years

29 June : Bushranger Stephen Fox found guilty in Geelong court of being one of the robbers of the Nelson, gets 15 years, he spent time on President, Success, and Sacramento, died in prison 16 Nov 1857

04 August : The Bushranger "Eureka" gang robbed William Cook, the gang was lead by John Finegan and John Donovan and  Henry Johnston, John Baylie and Charles Bowe (previous name James Clarke). they ranged between Melbourne and Bendigo, they would would strip and search the clothes of people, they were raided at the Crown Hotel in Bunninyong (VIC), and captured, Donovan and Finegan get 12 years, the others got 6 years

August : Eureka gold lead at Ballarat discovered 

13 October: Bushrangers William Barnes and Edward Wilson described in the Argus as "two of the Nelson robbers" are convicted of theft, Barnes is placed in irons he died on 18 December of "natural causes"

October:  The "Vulcan" arrived with five companies of the 40th regiment. they were stationed in Ballarat

24 October: The Bushranger gang called the "Eureka" gang were caught at Buninyong, for his part Charles Bowe #2458 was sentenced to six years, he was in prison many times 

03 November : The vessel "Ticondergo" arrived at Port Phillip bay, scores of passengers were stricken with fever, 100 had died and buried at sea, all 300 remaining passengers were landed at Point Nepean, and the area marked off as a Quarantine camp, 

03 Nov Mel John Richie executed after tried and found guilty

05 November : Alex Brooke Smith joins police

01 December : Charles Hope Nicolson joins police force

 01 December : John Sadleir joins police force

 07 December : Henry Pewtress joins police force

18 December : Bushranger #387 William  Barnes died  of "natural causes" in jail, a possible robber of the " Nelson"

Township of Greta surveyed

In the 1850's five prison hulks were bought by the government , they were Deborah, Lysander, President, Sacramento, Success , The hulks were moored off Point Gelibrand at Williamstown 

Prospectors started arriving from overseas. Approximately 100 000 arrived in 1852. Ships' crews deserted. Women were left while their husbands went in search of gold. Australia's population went from 404 276 to 1 097 305 between 1850 and 1860. Small gold deposits were discovered in New Zealand.

The gold fields had little law, 9 men in 5 weeks had been murdered  at Mt Alexander

In 1852 Tassie Bushranger John Jones (#3) roamed around Launceston, he had a brawl with local cop, caught and sent to Pentonville

In 1852 University of Melbourne founded

In 1852 Bogong Jack arrived in Australia , he was very good horse thief

In 1852 The land surveyor Robert Mason named the township reserve that was set aside on John Batman's map "Mercers Vale" , however the local people knew it better as  Beveridge's inn or "Beveridges" after Andrew and Margaret Beveridge who built an Inn

In 1852 William and Elizabeth Mutton at Avenel, had the first brick and stone house, he had made a good living by selling goods to diggers travelling on the Sydney road.

In 1852   WET PLATE CAMERA'S  were being used.

1853 :

 In Melbourne nine acres of land was set aside for a game of cricket, that land turned into the MCG

 08 : January: Victorian Police force established , the training depot was on corner of Wellington parade and punt road Richmond

18 January : Beveridge , The Land surveyor Robert Mason submitted a plan for a township at Gleeson's Inn on the Sydney rd , Gleeson's Inn was the third hotel, it was on Sydney road just north of Lithgow street. He was very tactful and did not want to call it Mercer's Vale, The name Mercer's Vale was not very popular and became redundant, and the name of  Beveridge took over , the streets took their names from the original purchasers of land or settlers ,in 1840,  Patterson, Kirby, Malcolm, Forman, Robertson, Murray, McKinnon, Minton, Arrowsmith, and Lithgow, Spring st was named because it leads to a natural water spring below the township , that part of the township was settled by Archibald Thom, The Sydney road went through his place and many people stopped there


February Tassie Sandy bay, Bushrangers Hickson, Maberley, Poulson, were house robbers, caught and sent to jail 

February Bushranger Edward Melville, robbed a home at Buninyong VIC , then disappeared

03 February Judge Barry sentenced Bushranger Frank McCallum (Captain Melville) to 32 years, his Bushranger mate William Roberts got 12 years jail

17 February : W B Montfort joins Victoria police #909  worked in north east Vic around Benalla and Sergeant in charge at Wang police station, helped to capture Harry Power.

March VIC Bushranger George Ellison sent to jail for robbery

01 April : Robert O'Hara Burke joins police force

04 April Mel George w Pinkerton executed after tried and found guilty.

26 April : Bushrangers Andrew Kelly And James Dalton hung for murder of Constable Buckmaster 2000 people watched

26 April : Bushranger #695 Arthur Burrowe at Geelong Circular court, was sentenced to ten years jail for assault and robbery, he spent time on hulks Success, Lysander and Sacamento.

April Bushrangers Richard Bryant (2) and William Mack, who had made many robberies since 1852, held up Mr J Jackson at his Fryers Creek store, they were later tracked and arrested by Constable Bloomfield,  they got twelve years jail

April : Gov Latrobe resigns, he left all his paper work in Melbourne.

May : Transportation to Tasmania stops

25 May: Mr Burnett the first person to be BURIED in the new Melbourne Cemetery

01:July : Surveyor Smyth renames May day hills to BEECHWORTH  after his birthplace in the UK

11 July Mel Aaron Durrant executed after tried and found guilty

July : John Evans Snr ( a distant cousin of ours)  takes over the Whitefield run of 76,000 acres from William Clarke

26 JULY Lieut Governor Charles Joseph La Trobe began sending out letters to various early settlers of the Port Phillip District seeking information on how they came to the district and their experiences of settlement


20 July : The McIvor (Heathcote) Gold escort robbed by  Bushrangers, George Melville, William Atkins, George Wilson, Jeremiah Murphy (alias Joseph Francis ) and John Murphy, driver Thomas Flooks (Fooks) shot dead, and troopers Morton, Davies and Boeswetter were shot but made it to hospital. 

23 August Mel John Smith and Henry Turner executed after tried and found guilty

03 October: Bushrangers William Atkins, George Wilson and George Melville were hung for gold escort Robbery. (not to be confused with Captain Melville), George Melville's  wife displayed his body in their oyster shop in the front window  in Bourke street Melbourne,  his body being displayed could have lead to the bodies of later executed felons being buried within the prison , Bushranger John (Francis) Murphy was also arrested but he committed suicide , . 

24 October: Bushrangers Henry Bradley and Patrick O'Connor hung in Melbourne for murder and robbery, a brief but bloody career

25 Oct Mel Michael Finnessy (fennessy) and Alexander Ram executed after tried and found guilty

23 Nov Mel John (joseph) Smith executed after tried and found guilty

November : Annie Kelly born

December : Sir Charles Hotham appointed as Lieutenant Governor

27 Dec Mel Joseph West executed after tried and found guilty.

31 December : Ben Gould transported to Van Dieman's land

In 1853  Bushrangers Arthur Burrow and William Garroway, at Ballarat robbed many people and were caught and sent to jail

In 1853 Bushrangers Moses Birkett and Peter Perry were found in a cave at Lake Crescent in Tassie, they had many stolen goods and guns, they were believed to have murdered   George Kelsey at Lemon Springs, they were sentenced to death and hanged

In 1853 Bushrangers William Bryan and John Douglas operated between Geelong and Ballarat they got 5 years in jail

In 1853 March, While rowing a boat with stores to the LORD AUCKLAND lying off Norfolk Island, Convicts Dennis Griffiths, James Clegg , Thomas Clayton, Robert Mitchell, Joseph Davis, Patrick Cooper, Jeremiah O'Sullivan and John Nash over powered the guards, They went to stradbroke Island, stole another boat the made the mainland , the convicts turned into the "boatman bushrangers" and committed many robberies, they held up six policemen, taking all there goods, clothes and guns, they were captured near Cleveland near Brisbane, all got fifteen years jail

In 1853 Tassie Bushrangers John Price and Tom Roberts roamed , they got death sentence, commuted to life. .

In 1853 Governor Latrobe wrote a circular letter to all pioneers of Victoria, requesting their stories of settlement and experiences with the blacks, he wanted to write a history of Victoria, but did not, many of the letters were published.

In 1853 The OLD township of Chiltern site was surveyed  At around this time the name of Chiltern, from the Chiltern Hills of England, had come into use

In 1853 University of Melbourne established

In 1853 Tasmania named. Town of Gladstone founded. French annexation of New Caledonia

In 1853 In Tassie Bushrangers Dalton and Kelly did many robberies around Campbelltown, and shot a watch house keeper, they tried to escape to the mainland but their boat was blown into Port Sorell and they were captured and got long time in jail

In 1853 Victoria Bushrangers John Douglas and William Bryan roamed around Muddy creek Douglas got 5 years jail

In 1853 Vic Bushrangers William Edwards and James Hammond robbed people in St Kilda road Melbourne both got ten years

In 1853 VIC Bushrangers Christopher Goodison and Alfred Stallard would drug their victim and rob them, In Melbourne for robbery sent to jail

In Late 1853 VIC Bushrangers William Young, William Simpson, William Layworth, William Rogers, Thomas Stroud, stole 100,000 pounds in unsigned bank notes, they were arrested Layworth turned informer, they got long jail terms.

In 1853 State Library established by Redmond Barry

In 1853 Lloyd Jones took over "Avenel Estate"

1854 :

18 January : Francis Hare joins Police, a key figure in the Kelly hunt

FebruaryRed Kelly , Neds father, has good fortune in the Gold fields of Victoria and  buys land at   BEVERIDGE , he buys over 60 acres  

28 March Mel James Button (bulton) executed after tried and found guilty.

18 April: Bushranger Dan Morgan robbed Hawker John Duff, near Castlemaine

25 April Mel David Magee   executed after tried and found guilty.

06 May : Gov La Trobe left Melbourne and sailed back to England on the "Golden Age" , he left all his papers and letters.

23 May Mel William Thoroughgood  executed after tried and found guilty

May : Commissioner Robert Rede takes charge of Ballarat gold field

26 June :New Victorian Governor, Charles Hotham 

28 August : James Lynch joins Victoria Police #708

24 Sept Mel John Hughes executed after tried and found guilty.

September: Hotham  calculated that only  half the diggers  pay license fees. Faced with the cost of increasing numbers of police and soldiers in the colony and growing levels of unemployment in Melbourne,  he needed to increase State revenue. he ordered that license search's be carried out  twice a week. 


30 September The first cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Club on the MCG


07 October:  While trying to get a drink at the hotel, James Scobie, was murdered near the hotel, he had a blow to the back of his head with a shovel,   Suspicion immediately fell on the proprietor of the Eureka Hotel,  James Bentley.

09 October James Bentley and associates arrested,  

12th October  James Bentley was brought before a judicial inquiry.  Bentley was acquitted of any charge,  The murder of Scobie and the acquittal of the main suspect by corrupt government officials particularly John D'Ewes the magistrate, sent the temperature rising on the Ballarat goldfields

 17 October : At the spot where Scobie was killed, 10,000 diggers  gathered . Around thirty police armed only with staves were sent to protect the hotel. Bentley fearing for his life  and rode to the police camp  The crowd enraged by his escape, started to stone the hotel. The 40th regiment, under Lieutenant Broodhurst came to offer the police assistance,  a fire broke out and spread to the hotel. The 40th regiment refused to join the police,  the Eureka Hotel burnt to the ground. 

09 Nov Mel John Gunn executed after tried and found guilty.

11 NovemberTen thousand miners meet at Bakery Hill and formed Ballarat Reform League

20 November:  E Sturt's enquiry, James Bentley and associates found guilty of Scobie manslaughter

23 NovemberThree Diggers  convicted of Bentley Hotel burning

24 Nov Mel Luke Lucas executed after tried and found guilty.

27 November :  Gov Hotham chose to ignore the diggers' demands in their PETITION and continued to send more troops to the Ballarat goldfields , after rumours of takeover of Police camp

27 NovemberThe  military commander, Major General Sir Robert Nickle, was asked to put Captain Thomas of the 40th Regiment in charge.  the 12th and 40th Regiments were camped at Ballarat

28 NovemberMiners attack troop reinforcements, some hurt.



The star constellation  Southern Cross was  chosen as the symbol for the flag, it was possibly designed by a Canadian, Lieutenant Ross.  It was hand sewn by Anastasia Withers, Elizabeth Hayes and Anne Duke sewed the stars,  The flag approximately 12 feet x 8 feet has five stars on a cross, sewn on a blue background. The blue section was made of a light woollen mohair, the  white crosses were made from a white cotton material , the stars were made from fine white petticoat material.  The stars have eight points because the women who sewed the flag were pressed for time and folded the material in four when they cut out the stars.

29 November :

 Monster meeting, licences burnt, The Southern Cross Flag was raised at Bakery Hill Ballarat  by the miners, and led by Peter Lalor, they swore an oath "We swear by the Southern Cross to stand truly by each other and fight to defend our rights and liberties" 

30 November:

Commissioner Rede orders final licence hunt, Stockade construction starts

03  December :

 Early Sunday morning at 3.00 am, The Army and police march from the Police camp in the centre of Ballarat and ATTACK the stockade, 30 Miners are cut down and killed by 180 soldiers and 100 police at EUREKA Stockade,

Lieutenant Ross, the designer of the Southern Cross, was shot "after he surrendered", as he lay dying at the foot of the flagpole, Constable John King ( 24) of the Victorian Police Force, scurried up the flagpole and ripped down the Southern Cross. Descendants of the King family gave the flag to the fine arts museum in Ballarat

Peter Lalor was seriously wounded and had his arm removed by Dr t, in Father Patrick Smyth's tent, Peter later escaped to Geelong.

04 December      

Some of the murdered Diggers, killed by the Police, were buried at the stockade, unmarked, the rest of the miners and the Soldiers  that died from the action at Eureka are BURIED at Old Cemetery

05 December

Martial law under General Major Nickle, a big reward was posted for BLACK AND LALOR but nobody would turn them in

8 Dec    13 Diggers charged with treason

16 Dec Geelong George Roberts  executed after tried and found guilty.

1854  November/December approx Edward (ned) kelly is born at BEVERIDGE  

In 1854 Dr. Baron F. von Mueller ascended  Mount Wellington, explored the sources of the Mitta Mitta river, and  scaled the two highest peaks of the Bogong Range, which he named Mounts Hotham and Latrobe respectively.

Gold is discovered in Upper Goulburn Jamieson,  

In 1854. The first Land sales took place at Schnapper Point, now called Mornington

In 1854 The first LOG prison is built in Beechworth, it was a stockade, which was part of the Government Camp 

In 1854.sept 12: The first steam locomotive in Australia, the Hobson's Bay railway opens in Melbourne, linking Flinders Street and Sandridge (Port Melbourne) ,  a distance of two and a quarter miles, inaugaurating Australia's railway age

In 1854.The first police officers were stationed at Euroa. Living in tents by the creek

In 1854.The building of a bridge across  Seven Creeks, creek in Euroa in 1854 for improvement of the route to the north-east gold fields was the beginning of a township

In 1854. The Age and Argus Newspaper go on sale 

In 1854: Photographer Adolphe Disderi develops carte-de-visite photography in Paris, leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios for the next decade The standard 2-1/2" x 4" format was patented by him  Through the use of a sliding plate holder and a camera with four lenses, eight negatives could be taken by Disderi's method on a single 8" x 10" glass plate. modern photo booth

The predecessors of cartes de visite were calling cards. During the 1850s, it was the custom to present one's calling card at the time of a social visit. These cards were smaller than today's business cards, frequently consisting of a name engraved and printed on glossy stock;

In 1854 After defending his patents on photographic techniques, a jury  concluded that Talbot was the true inventor of the negative-positive process, but not all innovations, especially the wet-collodion process, freeing photography in England from a virtual monopoly

In 1854 The freeman brothers started experimenting with stereoscope, but did not catch on till 1861

 In 1854 Charles Nettleton arrived in Melbourne in 1854, then 22, and worked at photo studio of Duryea and Mcdonald, Nettleton worked on the out door pics he photographed the first steam train to run in oz, in 1854, from Melbourne to Port Melbourne, .he photographed  almost every street in Melbourne

The Ambrotype process that was developed by Fredrick Scott Archer in 1851, with help from Peter Fry. was patented by  James Ambrose Cutting in 1854

In 1854 Hugh Glass bought "Tabilk" from Fred Manton's run , it is now famous for its wines.

In December Bushrangers John Boulton, Henry Marriott, Thomas Quinn and Henry Garrett, with unloaded pistols held up the bank of Victoria at Bakery hill Ballarat, stealing 14,000 pounds and 350 ounces of gold, later after selling some of the gold Boulton went back to the SAME bank to try and send some of the money to England, Boulton was arrested  , Quinn and Marriott were also quickly arrested, Garrett fled to England, remarkably a detective followed him to England tracked him down and arrested Garrett, later Quin turned informer and escaped punishment,  the other three got ten years jail, Garrett got out in 1861 went to NZ and was bushranger there got 8 years jail

1855 :  

In 1855 Bushranger Black Douglas roamed in the Maryborough and St Arnard area, and the Black forest near Woodend

06 January: The Ovens and Murray Advertiser newspaper begins  

23 January : Henry Seekamp, editor of the Ballarat times found guilty of sedition, sentenced to 3 years

22 February : Thirteen miners from Eureka stockade tried but acquitted by jury, the judge was Redmond Barry.  A big defeat for Barry and the Hotham government

27 March : Miners reforms introduced

10 April Peter Lalor's Narrative Letter published in the Argus,

26 May : Sir Robert Nickle DIED , Major General Sir Robert Nickle, was leader of the troops at the Eureka Stockade rebellion, died at Jolimont, Melbourne

26 June : Bushranger John "Rocky" Whelan hung later his mate Peter Connolly was also hung  (Tassie), Whelan was a killer

25 July Mel James McAllister  executed after tried and found guilty

July : Patrick Byrne married Margret white (Joes mother and father) at St Peter and St Paul catholic church in Goulbourn

August : Aaron Sherritt born

September: First bridge built over Ovens river at Wangaratta, this put the PUNTS out of business, this turned John Hyde alias "Billy the punt man" into a Bushranger, he robbed the mail man close to Greta, with a shot gun,  Policeman Hare gave chase on a horse from the coach he was travelling in, but could not catch him, "Billy" was later caught at Albury, with some of the mail property, Judge Forbes at Beechworth gave him 10 years jail, but "Billy" hung himself in his cell.

October : Early pioneer George Faithfull (42) DIED, his name is perpetuated in Faithfull st Wangaratta, and Faithful creek at Euroa.

10 November :John Humffray and  PETER LALOR key participants in the Eureka Stockade, elected to Parliament, in  Legislative Council.

24 Nov Mel James Condon, John Dixon and Alfred Henry Jackson  executed after tried and found guilty

26 November : Van Diemans Land changes name to Tasmania

26/27 November : First land auction takes place at Wangaratta., most land sold for one pound an acre.

31 December Captain Sir Charles Hotham, R.N., K.C.B. dies in office as Governor of Victoria DIED as a result of a "chill", some say a "broken heart".

Harry Power sentenced to 14 years for shooting at troopers

In 1855 Victoria passed a law requiring all executed prisoners to be buried on prison grounds  

In 1855 Regular coach services running between Melbourne and Beechworth, a three day journey

In 1855In gold rush town Ballarat, at a subscription ball, dancers circled beneath "Advance Australia" and an Emu and a Kangaroo on a coat of arms.   

In 1855 James Ingram was granted the first agency for the AGE newspaper. in Beechworth

In 1855 Major Mitchell caught a chill while surveying a road and this turned into pneumonia. and he died

1855 Convict Transportation to Norfolk Island ceased 

1855 New constitutions come into effect in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania. Ballot Act passed in Victoria. 

In 1855 William Clarke built the Commercial hotel in Murphy st Wangaratta, later dame Madam Melba stayed there in 1908, it was pulled down in the 1950's the Hotham building is there now

1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US

1856 :

John "red" Kelly helps the Quinn Family build their house at Wallan, on the north east side of Herne's swamp. , total about 700 acres.

Robert O'Hara Burke made officer in charge of POLICE at Beechworth, some say he got lost very often just riding around Beechworth.

18 February: Alex Fitzpatrick born  , a Policeman in Kelly story

22 March : MONUMENT  to diggers killed at EUREKA STOCKADE, erected at old cemetery Ballarat

22 April Mel James Ross  executed after tried and found guilty

21 May : James Babington joins police force, Later Ned sent Babington a letter of thanks, now known as the Babington letter 

July: Edward (Edwin) Richard Living born ( the Jerilderie  bank accountant )

13 August Fred Ward faced the East Maitland Quarter Sessions on 13 August 1856. He was found guilty of receiving and sentenced to 10 years hard labour on Cockatoo Island in Sydney.


23 September At Avenel William Mutton the first to buy a block of land there DIED

November : Joe Byrne born

02 December: 15 year old James" jimmy" Quinn jnr is charged at Kilmore, with possession of stolen cattle from the Tallarook run , but released

In 1856 First School built at Avenel of bark, on hill above creek, built by Church of England, Undenominational, first teacher Mr Richardson, the school was known as Richardson's school, the next teacher was Mr Irvine

In 1856 A group of townspeople and squatters held a meeting and changed the name of The township of "The Battery"  to Mansfield 

In 1856 Tintype photographs were the invention of Prof. Hamilton Smith of Ohio. They begin as thin sheets of iron, covered with a layer of black paint. This serves as the base for the same iodized collodion coating and silver nitrate bath used in the Ambrotype process.


Old Tom Lloyd snr married Jane Quinn

January: Land is bought for the Alliance hotel at Beechworth by William Parry

11 March Mel Chu-a-luk  and William Twigham (twiggem, laxton) executed after tried and found guilty

16 March Mel James Cornick  executed after tried and found guilty

26 March: The much hated prison inspector General John Price was MURDERED by inmates , a number of inmates were taken from the hulks "Success" and "Lysander" to do some work at Williamstown, John Price was called to hear some complaints, He rejected a request from inmate James Kelly (2) , Kelly later hit Price with a rock crushing his skull, then there was a mad rush to escape, Captain Blatchford was injured, but he got word to the guard, the inmates were caught and charged, they were all Bushrangers. They were Thomas Moloney, Thomas Wilbank, Henry Smith, Francis Brannagan, Richard Bryant , William Brown, John Young, James Anderson,   Dan Donovan, John Chesley, Richard Jones, William Jones and John Williams, by some strange twist of fate the ring leader James Kelly (#1) , William Jones and John Williams were pronounced NOT GUILTY, the rest were sentenced to DEATH

27 April Mel Fredrick Turner  executed after tried and found guilty

28 April: Mel Bushrangers Thomas Williams 1st, Henry Smith (brennan) and Thomas Maloney and Richard Bryant executed after tried and found guilty for murder of much hated  Inspector General John Price

29 April Mel Thomas (francis) Brannigan  , William Brown, Richard Bryant executed after tried and found guilty

30 April Mel John Chesley (chisley)  executed after tried and found guilty

May : John "red" Kelly sells his 40 acre block at Beveridge.

01 June Mel James Woodlock  executed after tried and found guilty

08 June : Sgt Arthur Steele joins police #1179

15 June : Margaret "Maggie" Kelly BORN

 July : Red Kelly's brothers, Daniel, Edward, and James, and his sisters Anne and Mary arrive from Ireland , they left behind potato blight, Famine fever, and typhus.

August : Bushranger Francis (Frank) McNeish McNeil McCallum known as Captain Melville, he was mad,  died, he was  strangled with kerchief, in his prison cell,  murder or suicide. ???


10 August  Gas lamps replaced oil lamps in the city of Melbourne

August 13: Hotel Alliance in Beechworth, starts trading, over time the name changes to the Railway Hotel, then The Nicholas


02 September Mel Chong Sigh  and Hing Tzan executed after tried and found guilty

05 Nov "Young"Tom Lloyd jnr is born to Kate and Jack Lloyd

06 Nov Mel John Mason  executed after tried and found guilty

 In 1857 Manhood suffrage and secret ballot introduced, Melbourne streets first lit by Gas  

 In 1857 It was decided that Prison hulks and stockades were to be abolished, The new Inspector General of Prisons in Victoria , Mr William Camp, advocated constructing radiating or panopticon type prisons

In 1857 First burial in Euroa Cemetery

 In 1857 The Buckland valley goldfield riot against the Chinese takes place, only one policeman faced the line of miners

In 1857 The township of Winton was surveyed and it was proclaimed as a town in 1861.
One theory says that the town was named after George de Winton. others claim that it was named after the surveyor Mr  Wilmont his birthplace in Westmoreland, England. He marked out the town.

In 1857 Photographer Antoine Fauchery started to experiment with steromonoscopes taken with petval lens
with had the subject in focus but the background was diffused


1858  :

01 February : George Coppin of Cremorne gardens fly's his balloon , drifted across Preston for an hour. 

01 March Mel Edward brown and William Jones  executed after tried and found guilty

16 March Mel George Robinson  executed after tried and found guilty

19 March Mel John Nelson  executed after tried and found guilty

September : Captain Fredrick Charles Standish appointed Chief Commissioner of Police , held position till 1880.

19  October : The Telegraph linked Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide

20 Oct Geelong Owen McQueeney  executed after tried and found guilty

October The roman catholic church and school, at Beveridge was completed, the land was granted by the crown, Mr Pratt was the builder, George and Schneider the architects, later attended by the Kelly kids

06 Nov Mel Samuel Gibbs  and George Thompson executed after tried and found guilty

26 Nov Mel Edward Hitchcock  executed after tried and found guilty

29 Nov Mel Christian von Sie  executed after tried and found guilty

Tenders were called for the construction of the first COURT HOUSE  at Wangaratta, the Kelly's appeared here many times, it opened 14th march 1859, the first court in 27 December 1859 was Judge Cope.

In 1858Two Squatters Edmond bond from Bongamero run and Evan Evans snr from Whitefield run caught Bushranger Mad Dan Morgan stealing some horses, Evan shot at him and wounded him in the shoulder, Morgan escaped but did not forget the two squatters.

In 1858 The Melbourne Club construction starts, finished in 1859, the architect was Leonard Terry 

In 1858AT Chiltern John Conness's discovery of the Indigo gold lead was announced The local diggings turned up the largest nugget of the Ovens goldfields.

In 1858Game of football between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch college, 40 players per side, now only 18. 

In 1858 Only 12 photographers in Melbourne, TA Hill claims he uses all process's dag, colid talbot,
GW Perry claims his photos taken without head rest, first lady Miss Hampson

In 1858 Charles Nettleton  opened own studio

1859 :

Owning a good horse cost a lot of money in these times so most folks got around on "shanks" pony, that meant you WALKED, you do not hear this expression any more.

Gold is discovered in Gaffney's creek by TT Gaffney

Batman’s Hill Railway Station (now known as Spencer Street Station) was opened.

At Chiltern, The original Star Hotel was built along the route from Beechworth to the Indigo lead (now Main St)..

11 April Mel Thomas Ryan  executed after tried and found guilty

06 June :  Colony of Queensland proclaimed, Sir George Bowen, the first Governor,  the territory northward from Point Danger to Cape York was, by letters patent dated June 6, 1859, erected into 'a separate colony to be called the colony of Queensland. (some wanted it called Cooksland ). Queensland was the only one of the six Australian States which did not require a separate Act of the Imperial Parliament for its establishment. The letters patent were sufficient to confer upon it separate being and constitutional authority, the first premier of the colony a young man of twenty-eight, Robert Wyndham Herbert, It started with just 7s 1/2d. in the Treasury. A thief stole it.


 July 12 The first football match was played at the MCG between Melbourne Football Club and South Yarra.

12 July Mel  Bushranger #4402 William Armstrong  (23) and George Chamberlain hung for murder,   after tried and found guilty

18 July Mel Chew a' Key   was tried and found guilty, he suicided, Not executed

26 July Mel Richard Rowley  executed after tried and found guilty

31July:  James Kelly born

04 October  Steve Hart born   

17 Nov Mel William Siddons  executed after tried and found guilty

21 Nov Mel Henry Brown  executed after tried and found guilty

In 1859. Australian rules Football "rules" established 



January In NSW Bushrangers Henry and Thomas Dargue were sentenced to 14 years for many years of bushranging, they were released on 28 march 1867, by the executive council of the day

Dr J P Rowe buys the "Mt Battery" run at Mansfield.

Horse drawn Coaches were running between Melbourne, Mansfield, Seymour, Yea ,  Euroa and Benalla

* September 1860, the Wahgunyah gold rush, one of the last in Victoria, started when a deep lead was found underground on the present townsite of Rutherglen*named Rutherglen in October 1860 after the Scottish birthplace of John Wallace who set up the Star Hotel*

Work began on the granite prison in Beechworth , it has an interesting feature the guard towers can only be accessed from outside the walls, though the barred gates. This was to protect the guards from the prisoners. In 1860 the prison started to take prisoners, male and female.

Batman's hill in Melbourne dug away and removed to make way for railway yard extension

April:  Uncle John "Jack" Quinn, at Melbourne charged with horse stealing but released,

27 June Uncle John "Jack" Quinn, at Gisborne, is charged with cattle stealing but discharged.

06 July Mel George Waines  executed after tried and found guilty

10:July : Burke and wills leave on EXPLORING TRIP from Melbourne

20 Aug Mel Edward Fenlow  executed after tried and found guilty

03 Sept Mel John Mcdonald  executed after tried and found guilty

30 Sept James "jimmy" Quinn jnr at Kilmore served 6 weeks for violent assault,

05 Oct : John Lloyd snr, at Donnybrook, charged with assault, but discharged

18 Oct : James "jimmy" Quinn jnr at Melbourne, charged with horse stealing but acquitted.  

In 1860 The a six-arch stone bridge at Avenel was completed, by Hugh Dalrymple, along with a Toll House, for the Victorian Board of Land and Works. This major upgrade was largely the result of the gold rushes the early toll keepers were Mr Pat Hanna, and Mr Russell, the toll house was moved in 1873, and made an annex of the imperial hotel until it was destroyed by fire. 


In 1860 to 1868 Another photographic process was also used called tannin collodion albumen process
not true dry plate very slow, but it took 60 seconds expose

         Government passes the first series of Land selection acts       

1861  :

*The Duffy  land selection act passed, The passing of a new act unlocking the lands and making them available for settlement*

 Uncle  John "Jack"  Quinn charged with robbery under arms, but discharged  

15 Feb: James "jimmy" Quinn jnr received four months for illegally using a horse

25 February : Benalla proclaimed a town

22 April Mel William Smith  executed after tried and found guilty

01: June : Daniel Kelly born

28 JuneBurke and wills died at coopers creek, they were recovered and BURIED in Melbourne, a display of their personal items  is in the Melbourne state library, John King survived.

11 July Mel Henry Cooley  executed after tried and found guilty

17 July : Constable Hugh Bracken arrived in Australia (he stopped Steele killing ned )

05 Aug Mel Nathaniel horatio Ruby  executed after tried and found guilty

23 Aug: James "jimmy" Quinn jnr, charged at Donnybrook for assaulting Police, paid ten pound fine

30 Aug: James "jimmy" Quinn jnr, at Clunes charged with Horse stealing but discharged.

20 Sept Mel Martin Rice  executed after tried and found guilty

31 Oct Mel Thomas Sanders  executed after tried and found guilty

19 November : Bushranger William Mack is released on ticket of leave, after serving 10 years of 20 year  sentence for robbery. 

23 November:  Uncle John "Jack" Quinn, at Donnybrook, charged with robbery under arms, but discharged.

In 1861 First Melbourne cup run


Australian's certainly love their leisure. They also worship sport  , they are found of "the sport of king's" And one race every year stops the entire nation from working , In Victoria we get a public holiday. Even if they are not actually present - instead glued to their television screens or their radio's - Australian's all over the country , of every age and from every walk of life , follow the horse's running in the Melbourne Cup .

Melbourne Cup Day is fixed for the first Tuesday in November . The race is recognized as one of the World 's greatest handicap race. It is held at Flemington , a Melbourne suburb which is called after a butcher who once lived there.

The first Cup was run in 1861,. There were 17 starters, and  paradoxically  the prize - apart from the money (170 pounds ) - was not a cup at all , but a hand - beaten gold watch . Archer, the Winning horse , had walked to Melbourne from its stable in Nowra New South Wales , a distance of 500 miles (800km)


In 1861 NSW Bushrangers Henry Keene, William Watson and Michael Lawler, robbed many people and houses, Keene shot and killed Jim Laurie, they were captured Keene was hung, the others commuted to 15 years

In 1861 Gold is discovered at Woods Point by William Gooley

In 1861 Young and Jacksons opens as the Princes bridge hotel

1861: In London, Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates a projected colour photographic image system involving three black and white photographs, each taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were made into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same colour filters. This is the "colour separation" method

In 1861 Alexander Parkes produces a celluloid-like cellulose  material

1861-65: Mathew Brady and staff (mostly staff) covers the American Civil War, exposing 7000 negatives

1862 :

Between 1862 and 1867 20 men were shot dead or died of wounds inflicted by Bushrangers and 23 Bushrangers were killed or hanged in the same period. 20 police were wounded between 1862 and 1868.

January In NSW Bushrangers Henry Mike Davis, Robert Smith and Aaron Von Ehrstein robbed a mail coach near Burrangong, aboard were  Ensign Morris and Sergeant O'Grady, of the 12th regiment , whom they robbed , They got the police into action and gave chase and captured them , they got ten years, Davis escaped, was wounded and captured again , sentenced to death but commuted to life

March Bushrangers Patrick Daley, Frank Gardiner, Johnny Gilbert and John O'Meally stuck up Soloman's store at Big Wombat (NSW), they looted the store and later  Dalton and O'Meally bailed up a Captain Norton and his black tracker Billy Durgan, the next day Patrick Daly was arrested by Sir Frederick Pottinger and given 15 years

March NSW Bushranger James Downey robbed Mr Horsington , Downey disappeared

17  March : Patrick Byrne born (Joe's brother)

23 March John Lloyd snr, at Kilmore charged with drunk and disorderly, but discharged.

25 March: Bushranger John Paisley hung, he roamed with Frank Gardiner

29 March James "jimmy" Quinn jnr at Kilmore charged with violent assault , but discharged

April: Bushranger Ben Hall roamed

April  Bushranger Jack Bullfrog was hung at Bathurst for murder of William Clarke

14 April : Detective Patrick Lyons shot in right hand when attacked by Davis and party

22 April: John Lloyd snr, at Kilmore, charged with Larceny but discharged

05 May  Bushranger Benjamin Allerton hanged at Goulburn, for murder of David Elliot at Talbot's Wakool Hotel NSW

12 May  Red's brother James Kelly at Kilmore, is charged with cattle stealing, but discharged

15 June : Senior Constable Henry Moran shot and wounded by Gardner's gang while robbing the Eugowra Gold escort from the Lachlan diggings, Bushranger Daniel Charters was arrested on suspicion , he was released , later the Government offered !00 pounds and a free pardon for information on the robbery Daniel Charters he turned informer on the Bushranger Gardiner Gang, he was later released a free man,, The Police arrested Bushrangers John Bow , Henry Manns later hanged, Alexander Fordyce, Frank Gardiner, Johnny Gilbert , J O'Melly could not be found. , Alexander Fordyce was given death commuted to life only did 6.

10 August : Constable Luke Cullen shot in leg while struggling with prisoner

September : Telegraph arrives at Benalla 

September: Rutherglen was declared a municipality 

September Vic Bushranger James Regent and 2 other Bushrangers robbed a hotel, was caught and sent to jail at Ararat

October NSW Bushrangers William MacKie, John MacMahon and Charles Ross robbed the mail coach on the great north road , they were caught , Charles Ross got 5 years jail, John MacMahon got 7 years jail, MacKie got 7 years but he later escaped,  with another Bushranger Rutherford they continued bushranging, MacKie was later captured in 1865

21 October :  Red's brother James Kelly at Kilmore, is charged again with cattle stealing, but discharged 

November : Ernest Flood arrives in Melbourne

10 November : Constable Thomas Rayfield shot in side while trying to arrest horse thief "little jemmy"

16 November NSW Bushrangers George Willison and Fredrick Britton robbed the Hartley Mail Coach near Bathurst, They were captured in the Union bank cashing the notes, they got 16 years jail, Britton later escaped with Fred Ward (Thunderbolt)

29 December Mel Samuel Pollett  executed after tried and found guilty

December  Bushrangers John Brownlow and Charles Foley in NSW robbed Daniel O'Brien at his store of 50 pounds,  they got 7 years jail

December NSW Bushrangers Charles MacKay and brother James Mackay, with George Williams #2 roamed between Lithgow and Bathurst, after robbing a coach the police caught them , Williams got ten years, the brothers got 15 years

In 1862 NSW Bushranger George Williams #1 robbed the mail Coach on the Cowra road he blackened his face, later the Coach driver recognised him, George got 10 years

In 1862 The Bushranger gang called the "Three Jacks Gang" roamed around Forbes NSW, members Jack Conners, Jack (john) MacGuinness and Jack (john)  Davis (1), after about a year of Bushranging they had a gun battle with Inspector  Sanderson and other Police , Bushranger Davis was shot and wounded, Constable Lyons had a slight wound,  MacGuinness and Conners escaped,  At some time Conners was shot and wounded by Bushranger Frank Gardiner for cowardice for running away when Bushranger Davis needed help, later Jack Conners was sentenced to death, Davies was sentenced to death but commuted to life he served 15 years. MacGuinness was later shot dead  by a tracker called Pilot.

In 1862 In NSW Three French Bushrangers, Louis Deuchef, Auguste Rivet and Charles Robardi  held up a coach at Lambing Flat, the driver was shot dead,  that day Rivot and Robardi was arrested very quickly , Robardi was hung in May 1863, Rivet was given Life, Deuchef was captured in 1868 and sentenced to death

In 1862 NSW Bushranger John MacGuire was arrested on suspicion of being one of the robbers of the gold escort on the Lachlan diggings, he later served some time for aiding bushrangers

In 1862 NSW Bushranger William Ross was caught holding up Hotel near Campbell's River, he was put in jail at Sydney



Doctor Samuel Reynolds arrives in Mansfield and soon sets up practice 

01 January  NSW Bushranger John Foley brother of bushranger Francis Foley, given 15 years jail, big story

07 January  NSW Bushranger Jack Healey robbed Sam Jacobson, Healy got jail

19 February Mel Thomas McGee  executed after tried and found guilty

26 February : Bushranger John Bow #5369 a member of the Bushranging gang led by Frank Gardiner, is sentenced to death but commuted to life, for robbery of gold escort, he was released in 1874, and no records after then

March  NSW Bushrangers  Charles and Alexander Ross were caught after shooting Henry Stephens, they got death and hanged

26 March: Bushranger Harry Manns #105 hung, the hangman botched the hanging, and he slowly strangled , he was part of Gardiner's gang

17 April : A gold medal was awarded to Robert Lowe Esq, for shooting Bushranger Robert Heather with his own gun, his bushranger mate escaped capture

22 April : At KILMORE COURT HOUSE  Neds Uncle James kelly is charged with cattle theft, from the Beveridge black smith, Mrs Ellen kelly and young  Ned appear as witnesses for the defence, but James gets three years hard labour  

May : Annie, Ned and Maggie attend school at the 40 ft by 20 ft bluestone Beveridge CATHOLIC CHURCH SCHOOL  number 711, teachers Thomas and Sarah Wall paid 30 pound per year, they continued in office  until 1875. The church was started in 1857 and completed in October 1858 at a cost of 850 pounds

08 June : Senior constable William Hughes shot in arm when ambushed

14 June  Fr. Matthew GIBNEY was ordained , and arrived on the “Tartar” in Perth on the 12th December 1863.

12  July  : Catherine Kelly born

06 August: Senior constable Fredrick Sutton wounded by Bushranger Gilbert when he attempted to rob mail

August    NSW Bushranger and bush telegraph of Daniel Morgan , "German Bill" shot in gun battle with police, he later died

21 August : A Gold medal was awarded to Henry Bayless PM, who was badly wounded in pursuit of Bushranger Dan Morgan, he also may have shot and killed one of Morgan's Bushranger mates.  

29 August : Senior sergeant James Stevenson shot in hand during battle with Bushrangers  Fred Lowry and Larry Cummins but  Bushranger Fred Lowry was shot   in the throat during  the battle by Sgt Stevenson, he was attended by Dr Waugh, he died about 3 hours later, its claimed he said "Tell them I died game". , Cummings arrested.

04 September : Senior constable Thomas Haughey shot in knee by armed offenders    

26 October : Bushranger Michael (micky) Burke shot dead by Gold Commissoner H M Kneightly P.M. he was awarded gold medal After Burke was shot another Hall gang member Bushranger John Vane gave himself up and got 15 years jail

06 November  Geelong James Murphy  executed after tried and found guilty

11 November  Mel Julian Cross  and David Gedge and first woman Elizabeth Scott executed after tried and found guilty

19 November : Bushranger John (Johnny) O'Meally shot by David Campbell, while on a raid on Campbell's station , he was a member of Hall's gang

20 November : A Gold Medal was awarded to David Campbell J.P, for shooting Bushranger O'Meally, one of Bushranger Gilberts gang.

01 December Mel James Barrett  executed after tried and found guilty

In 1863 South Australia undertakes to administer the Northern Territory. New Caledonia a convict colony

In 1863 The building at 17 Loch st Beechworth is built, used as common school No 36, it was built on top of where the first cemetery was

In 1863 Toll house and gates erected on the northern end of the bridge over the Seven Creeks at Euroa

In 1863 The north east railway is surveyed through the Quinn western paddocks

In 1863 Bushranger George Bermingham   associated with Bushranger William Dunne, claimed he bushranged with Ben hall and Gilbert, George was arrested by Sergeant Donohoe for holding up Cooma Mail, both given 10 years

In 1863-64 Bushrangers James Crookwell, George  Lynam, Michael Seary, John Southgate and Daniel Mathews, operated between Goulbourn (NSW) and Taralga, they operated in various groups or by themselves, Crookwell was with Lynam and Seary when they were caught robbing William Sidwell's hotel at Towrang,  Seary and Crookwell was given 15 years in jail, later he escaped and given a death sentence , Mathews got 10 years, Southgate got 15 years


In 1863 NSW Bushranger Jim Gordan, was with Ben Hall gang for short while he split and was later given 15 years jail



January : Red Kelly sells his 22 acre property at Beveridge for 80 pounds ( a loss), to James Stuart, and  moves the family to AVENEL , on Hughes creek, a small town of about 30 buildings. They rented 40 acres from widow Mutton., Red built a shack in the south eastern corner of the block.

 The Kelly children first attend the   CHURCH OF ENGLAND    school, until that was replaced  with the common school

Here Ned possibly learns some of the bush skills of the Aborigines and their abilities as "Black trackers".

01 Feb James "jimmy" Quinn jnr, At Beechworth charged with Horse stealing, sentenced to 12 months jail.

29 Feb Ballarat  Alexander Davis executed after tried and found guilty

01 March NSW Bushranger John Foster given 10 years

March : Ned and Margaret are tested at school by Inspector Brown 

April NSW Bushranger Harry Wilson, shot dead Peter Clarke while bailing up him and a bunch of mates, the mates tackled the bushranger, and Clarke and Conroy were wounded , but the boys managed to tie Wilson up, on the way back to town , they found another 2 men tied to trees, Wilson had bailed them up as well.

May 1864 NSW Bushranger James Mount joined up with bushrangers Ben Hall and Gilbert, after many robberies he was caught and got ten years jail

24 June : Sergeant David McGinnity shot dead by Bushranger Mad Dan Morgan

16 July :QLD Bushranger John Wright is shot dead  by Police at Wipend on the MacKenzie river

03 Aug Mel Christopher Harrison , William Carver and Samuel Woods executed after tried and found guilty

18 August : Sergeant Michael Kennedy enters police force

04 September : Sergeant Thomas Smyth shot by Bushranger mad Dan Morgan, Smyth died 29 September.

September : James Quinn Snr leases  GLENMORE RUN   in King river valley, 25,000 acres. he sold his Wallan house to Thomas Dougall.

October NSW Bushranger John Dunleavy shot and wounded, given death sentence

15 November : Sergeant Edward Parry shot dead by Bushranger John Gilbert in a raid on the Gundagai Mail

19 December : A Gold medal was awarded to William Maclay for fighting off Bushranger Gilberts gang from Plumps inn.

In 1864 NSW March  Bushrangers James (jim) Hill and Jim Jones while robbing mr William Druid's home had gun battle with police Sub Inspector Hussey was wounded, jones also wounded, both bushrangers got 15 years

In 1864 NSW Bushrangers Charles Jones and accomplice Frank Stanley (alias Wright) convicted of bushranging and given 12 years

In 1864 Queensland Bushranger Alpin MacPherson roamed around Rockhampton committed many robberies, given 20 years jail

In 1864 NSW Bushranger Johnny O'Meally shot and killed by David Campbell

In 1864 May NSW Bushrangers John Taylor and Thomas Webb roamed around Bigga area raided Chinese camp, which caused a great amount of fuss, caught and got 2 years in jail

Carbon prints, patented in 1864 by Joseph Wilson Swan, offered a permanent image without grain. The process was capable of making  prints with a wide tonal range. Negatives were printed onto a "tissue" containing carbon and other pigments in a gelatine base


In 1865 Unknown date :      Ned saves young 7 yo RICHARD SHELTON   from drowning, in  Hughes creek about 150 metres down from  the  BRIDGE  , in gratitude the  SHELTON FAMILY   gave Ned a  GREEN SILK SASH   , which he was wearing under his armour during the last stand at Glenrowan, The Shelton's owned  the  ROYAL MAIL HOTEL     in Avenel

12 January : Bushranger James Clarke brother of John and Thomas Clarke, leaders of the Clarke Gang, was given seven years for being receiver of stolen goods


26 January : Constable Samuel Nelson shot dead with shot gun by Bushranger John Dunn , at Collector NSW, he was in charge of the Lock-up, Ben Hall, John Gilbert and John Dunn rode into town and held up the Hotel while most of the men from the town were out looking for the three bushrangers, Dunn shot at a man on a horse, Nelson heard the shots and came to the hotel, Dunn warned him to stop but would not, Dunn shot him with his shotgun, then with a pistol killing him., he was shot in front of his two sons Fred and Harry.

January NSW Bushrangers Robert Johnstone and William Mackie tried to rob Northern Mail coach, they were captured and jailed

04 February : Senior Constable John Wood died from gunshot wound, fired by chinaman

15 February James Meldrum (47) DIED  shepherd for David Reid, James helped find first gold at Reedy Creek Beechworth 

24 February :Constable William Wiles wounded 3 times, by shots fired by members of Bushranger Halls gang during battle

18 March : Constable John Kelly wounded by bullet in chest, in attack by Bushranger's  from Ben Hall's gang

18 March : Constable Robert Keene shot and wounded in right shoulder in battle with Bushrangers

30 March : Ned is tested again at school by Inspector G Wilson Brown

April : Bushranger Dan Morgan returns to Victoria to kill two squatters at Whitefield on the King River, , Edmond Bond and Evans Evans snr, he brought 4 "bush telegraphs" with him.

05 April: Policeman William b Montfort arrested a " Bush telegraph" at Benalla, used by Morgan and had him locked up for 7 days  

05 April Mel John Stacey  executed after tried and found guilty

06 April Mad Dan Morgan burns the hay stacks at Whitefield, Evans was lucky, he was not home, but Morgan kidnapped his brother John, this run bordered the Quinn run

08 April : Mad Dan Morgan holds up the McPherson station at Peechelba. and imprisoned 19 people, but the serving maid Alice Keenan got a message to the next homestead, the Rutherfords, and a party of police surrounded the house, waiting for Morgan to show himself.

09 April : Bushranger William John Owen,  known as Mad Dan Morgan  was  shot in the back by John Wendlan,  at Peechelba 13 miles north of Wang, While he was dying he was attended to by Dr Dobbyn , he died at 2.00 pm, before his body was cold, mutilation began , Superintendent Cobham had Dr Joseph Henry remove his beard as a memento, Doctor Dobbyn removed his head and sent it to Professor Halford in Melbourne.   , he was BURIED   at Wangaratta , with no head !, 

A side note, the words mad dog is god dam backwards !  Prisoners in jail received extra punishment if they swore or cussed so they would say MAD DOG

09 April : news of end of American civil war reaches Australia.

10 April : Inquest for Morgan held before Dr Dobbyn, after this his beard is flayed, head cut off.

13 April : Senior Constable J R Herbert was accidentally shot and died when he was mistaken for a Bushranger

13 April : News arrives that American President Abraham Lincoln assonated.

19 April : public furore over Morgan mutilation.

03 May : Thomas Maslen appeared on remand in the Wahgunyah Police court, charged with shooting at Wendlen, to avenge the killing of Morgan

04 May Mel Joseph Brown  executed after tried and found guilty

05 May: Bushranger " Bold BEN HALL " shot by police at Billabong Creek, for 1000 pounds reward.

10 may: One thousand pounds was allotted to those who captured Morgan

MAY : Phillip Morgan lost a heifer calf , he noticed a hind quarter hinging at Kelly's hut , he returned with Constable Doxey, and he charged  Ned's father "Red" with cattle stealing, that was dropped but  he is  CONVICTED   by JP's Blake and Summiss of illegal possession of a COWS HIDE

13 May: Bushranger Johnny Gilbert (alias Roberts) (Flash Jack) 23 yo was shot and killed by Constable John Bright

06 July Mel Peter Dotsalaere  executed after tried and found guilty

10 August : Grace, Ned's sister is born

21 August Castlemaine David Young  executed after tried and found guilty

August ; Tom and Jack Lloyd are arrested in Greta and charged with stealing cattle  from John Chisholm and at Beechworth given 5 years jail   , the Quinn brothers were implicated but not charged.

19 Oct: John Lloyd snr, And Thomas Lloyd snr, at Beechworth, charged with cattle stealing , 5 years jail each.

 28 Oct Geelong Thomas Menard  executed after tried and found guilty

06 Nov 1865 The first bushranger to be hanged at Beechworth prison, Patrick Sheehan for murder of man called Kennedy at Yackandandah  

10 December : Senior Constable William Lang was shot in arm while attempting to arrest Bushranger mail robber Carroll.

24 December : Constable James McHale wounded during the capture of Bushranger Dunn Dunn was hanged at Darlinghurst. on 19 march 1866

*December: Bushranger Lowry roamed *

An un official policy was adopted by the Police when cornering Bushrangers, shoot first and not allow surrender. 

In 1865 Bushranger Joe Clarke was a very active member of the Bushranger Daniel Sullivan Gang around Orange in NSW, Clarke was arrested and sent to jail for ten years 

In 1865 NSW Bushrangers Charles Stanmore and Jimmy Boyd stuck up the Walgett Mail, they got 12 years

In 1865 Burke and Wills statue erected in Collins st

In 1865 Severe drought spread across Victoria creating hardship for Farmers

In 1865 Bushrangers were using "bush telegraphs" , that is they would send men into towns and they would spread stories that the Bushrangers had been seen in other areas about to do "something " to lure the police away from that town, Mad Dan Morgan operated in this manner, the "telegraphs" also reported back any news they gathered to the Bushrangers. 


In 1865 March NSW Bushrangers Richard Middleton (alias Ruggy Dick ) , John Wilson and Thomas Tracey held up two ladies Mrs Pitt and Mrs Campbell wives of Army Colonel's at Forbes, they were caught next day and sent to jail.

In 1865 NSW Bushranger Amos Donnelly was shot dead by Police , he was with Bushrangers Daniel Sullivan and Joe Clarke at Molong , they stuck up Mr Gordan's hotel, the police arrived, Sergeant Cleary, Constables Brown and Johnston and shot it out with the bushrangers, Clarke and Sullivan went to jail.

In 1865 NSW Dan Shea a bad horse thief was given 8 years jail, after just doing 2 years for same thing

In 1865 Woodburytype--a photomechanical process in which the completed prints are not made with light-sensitive materials. One of the most beautiful and permanent of all methods of producing prints in quantity, the Woodburytype process was also among the most difficult. A light-sensitive gelatin material is exposed to a negative, resulting in a three-dimensional relief-map of the image. Then the difficult part: applying huge pressure (with a hydraulic press) on the gelatine relief to make an impression in a block of lead. The lead mould is used to make the prints, which have exquisite tonality and a slightly raised surface.

In Jan 1865 Charles Nettleton photographed  the confederate ship Shenandoh during American civil war in port phillip bay
Nettleton had contract with police for 25 years for photos. he had a permanent dark room in cell at jail


1866  : 

03 Feb NSW Bushrangers John ford and John Seymour arrested for robbery of Bathurst mail, they went to jail, they were only Bushrangers for 2 days

10 March Castlemaine Long Poy  executed after tried and found guilty

19 March Ballarat James Jones executed after tried and found guilty

19 March : Bushranger John Dunn hung for robbery and murder of Constable Nelson at Darlinghurst

April NSW Bushrangers Patrick Foran and James Kelly given 10 years jail

April (NSW)  Bushranger Samuel Clarke had his sentence for bushranging reduced to five years and one month for no previous convictions

April : Bushrangers James Booth, William Willis and Thomas Hampton  held up the Campbelltown mail, later the mail coach at Red Post Hill (NSW), Later they were arrested drinking in a Sydney hotel, Booth and Hampton got eight years Willis got ten years

09 April :NSW Bushrangers William Fletcher, Thomas Clarke, Patrick Connell and Tom Connell , robbed Pollock's store, Constable O'Grady shot Fletcher dead, Constable Miles O'Grady shot and wounded while fighting the  Bushrangers died a few days later

14 April : At Bargo Brush (NSW) Constable William Raymond shot while on prisoner escort six Bushrangers tried to escape, on their way to Sydney, from Berrima prison., the mutineers were James Crookwell, William Bland, William Lee, Thomas Berryman, John Owens and Michael Slattery, they were all sentenced to death

April NSW Bushranger John Weekes was sentenced to death for Bushranging and murder of Mr Schefts.

16 September : Queensland Bushranger Henry Hunter gets 22 years in jail for robbery 

29 Nov Mel Robert Bourke executed after tried and found guilty

December : Bushrangers Patrick Fitzgerald (alias Paddy Wandong) and Edward Kelly (#1) bailed up Thomas  goodall, they were given 15 years, kelly only served 6 years

07 December : A Gold medal was awarded to J P Grenfell who was fatally wounded in a desperate battle with Bushrangers The town of Grenfell was named in his honour

22 December : Constable Michael Scanlon enters police force #2118

27 DecemberNed's father (45) DIED Ellen was left alone with 7 children, 

In 1866 Bushranger John Cummings was arrested for bushranging by some troopers, on the way to Binda  (NSW) for the night, his bushranger brother Larry Cummings, chased after the troopers to try and rescue his brother John,  the troopers, when Larry was shooting at a trooper he hit John and killed him, Larry was arrested and given Life for killing his brother, Larry and John were bushranging since the early 1860's, Larry escaped several times and received more years in jail, he was pardoned in June 1874

In 1866 NSW Bushrangers Patrick Foran and  James (jim) Kelly (#3) roamed around Cowra, arrested got ten years

In 1866 NSW Bushranger James Kennedy, robbed many people under arms , got 15 years

In 1866 NSW Bushranger James Smith was very active stealing horses at Bathurst he got 17 years but only did 7.

In 1866 NSW Bushrangers Charles Rutherford and William MacKie roamed around Narrabri, MacKie and Rutherford was caught and both got 7 years, Rutherford escaped and was shot dead robbing the Inn at Cannonbar

1867 :

23 March : The great fire of Beechworth destroys many stores

March: Mrs Ellen Kelly charged with abusive language fined two pound

05 April NSW Bushranger William Taverner tried and served 5 years jail

08 April At Goulburn NSW Bushranger James Baldwin (NSW) sentenced to 15 years jail for highway robbery, and operating with the Clarke brothers, also sentenced were bushrangers Harry Brown, Charles H Gough, alias Wyndham, alias Bennett and Thomas Cunningham was given 15 years, he was long suspected of being a " bush telegraph" for the Clarke brothers from 64-67. Both Gough and Cunningham only served 7 years,

08 April At Goulburn NSW, Bushranger William Johnson was given 2 years jail.

16 April Ballarat Denis Murphy executed after tried and found guilty

27 April Police shoot out with Bushranger Clarke brothers

04 May  John Kelly hung at Beechworth Gaol , Judge Barry, executed after tried and found guilty

14 June : Ernest Flood joins police force

June Mrs Ellen kelly moves the family to Lloyd's shanty house  near Greta, the house was an old hotel, owned by Catherine and Jane Lloyd, on the fifteen mile creek.

 June-July-October : Bushranger "Blue Cap" Robert Cotterall,  terrorized the NSW district around Wagga Wagga, he was wounded in shoot out with police, he got 10 ten years but only served six

25 July : Bushrangers Thomas and John Clarke "The scum of the earth " hanged at Darlinghurst jail.

31 July Castlemaine William h Terry executed after tried and found guilty

07 Aug Ballarat Joseph Ballan and George Searle executed after tried and found guilty

24 September : Constable Hugh Bracken married Amelia Fanny Ryder  

18 October NSW Bushranger John Foran gets 15 years, only served 6.

24 October NSW Bushranger Daniel Taylor was charged with bushranging got 8 years 

01 December : Greta common school opens

In 1867 End of transportation to Western Australia

In 1867 :Francis Hare married Janet Harper

In 1867 NSW Bushrangers John Egan and Patrick Ryan roamed Orange , they got 15 years, for highway robbery

In 1867 NSW Bushranger John Kelly, was arrested for robbery under arms, given 14 years

In 1867 NSW Bushrangers John Kerr and John Shepherd, roamed and robbed many people, on Cowra roads, they got ten years 

In 1867 NSW Bushranger Walther Maher roamed the southern districts, he got 10 years

In 1867 NSW Bushranger John Miles was caught by local sergeant at Mookerawa, got 10 years

In 1867 NSW Bushrangers H Moran and Smith roamed the western districts, they both got 17 years jail

In 1867 VIC Bushranger William Scott, who was part of the Bushranger Clarke gang, had Brush with the Law and was wounded, it was thought he died afterwards as he disappeared.

From late 1860's magic lantern shows where big business, with a silver coin fee, three pence

1868 :

Constable Thomas McIntyre joins police force #2384  

01 January NSW Bushrangers Tom Smith and H Moran were arrested for bushranging, and got 17 years jail

16 January: For robbery on 24 November 1867, and wounding Constable MacNamara, convicted Bushrangers Edward Kelly (#2) (not ned) got thirty years, John Payne twenty years and William Brookman #1039 and John Williams were sentenced to death but remitted to 15 years on roads, but only did 6.

27January: Neds uncle James kelly burns down the Lloyd's shanty house arrested by Detective Harrington 

13 February: James Kelly charged with arson in front of Mr Piper PM at Wangaratta Police Court

February: John Chisholm sells "Myrrhee" lease to Hugh Glass

31 March Mel Bernard Cunningham , & Joseph Whelan  executed after tried and found guilty

March : There was an attempted assassination of the Duke of Edinburgh in Sydney by a demented Irishman, Captain Henry O’Farrell

April NSW Bushrangers Charles Johnson and William Miller did many robberies under arms, escaped being caught several times, they were jailed for long time

18 April : At Beechworth Uncle James  Kelly gets a hanging sentence commuted to 10 years with hard labour, convicted by Judge Barry known as the "Hanging" Judge , defended by Fredrick Brown Ellen Kelly gave evidence, also publican Laurence O'Brien.

June/July : Ellen kelly takes up SELECTION 57a  , on Eleven Mile creek, 88 acres, 11 pounds per year,  an old hut is on south side of road , these blocks were cut from Robert McBean's  Kilfeera station, north west boundary, it was called eleven mile creek because the creek was 11 miles from Benalla.

14 August Castlemaine John Hogan executed after tried and found guilty

17 September At Benalla court, in front of PM W Piper, messrs  G Perry , McBean, and Sharp JP, James Quinn charged with assaulting Bill Skelton about two years previous at Greta,

September 1868, Hector Fraser completed his blue stone house at the base of Mt Bland at Beveridge, the house was built by Mr Robertson, the plans drawn by Duncan McGregor, a roads board clerk and surveyor, Mt Bland become known as Fraser's hill and then Mt Fraser 


01 November : Constable McCabe DIED he was shot by Bushranger Starlight (Pearson)

November : Bushranger Robert Bourke (some claim his name was Clusky) was hung for murder of Harry Hurst in a gun battle at the Hurst's Diamond creek station, Bourke claimed self defence.

In 1868 Neil Fletcher was the first known postmaster at Beveridge, paid 25 pounds per annum, started the job about 1863

In 1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a variety of methods for colour photography

1869 :

18 February : Harry Power (Johnson) escapes from Pentridge,

31 March Mel Michael Flanagan executed after tried and found guilty

09 April : Neds sister Annie married Alex Gunn at   St Patrick's    Church at  Wangaratta 

May NSW Bushrangers Joseph Horne and John Bollard held up a bank , get ten years

07 May : Harry Power holds up the mail coach at one mile creek near Beechworth

10 May: At Wangaratta Police court , D H Evans was JP, Thomas Lloyd charged with using abusive language at Oxley and damaging Constable Foley's uniform

May : Robert McBean had some sheep stolen, fresh mutton was found at Gunn's and Stewarts, Ned swore he sold them the sheep, but they were fined.

27 May : Ned and Harry Power are shot at by Dr Rowe at his Mt Battery station at Mansfield

02 June: Harry Power captured near Baddaginnie, but escaped

17 June At Benalla Police court Dr Heath and messrs Perry and Sharpe JP, Gunn and Stewart charged with having meat in their possession for which they cannot account for, both fined ten pounds, paid.

June: William Frost a boundary rider from Laceby station, became friends with Ellen kelly, she became pregnant, he promised to marry her, he never did.  

03 August Mel James Ritson executed after tried and found guilty

25 August : James Quinn Snr Ellen's dad, died at Glenmore

28 August :Harry Power holds up coach at Buckland gap near Beechworth

03 September: Ah Fook held up and robbed by Harry Power at boggy creek Benalla, of two pound ten

04 September : John P Fawkner DIED , early part founder of Melbourne

10 October : Ah Fook calls at Kelly house , gets into fight with Ned.

16  October : Ned is arrested by Sgt Whelan and David McEnerny, and charged with robbing and assaulting  china man Ah fook, Ned appeared before George Sharpe jp , prosecuter William Nicolas, he was remanded and locked up at Benalla cells, but the charge is later dismissed,   G Sharpe jp built Commercial hotel in Benalla.

21 October George Sharpe and Richard Heath granted Ned bail

26 October : Ned acquitted, after he had already spent 10 days in jail, by Alfred Wills jp, Ned represented by solicitor Francis McDonnell, and George Pow .

08 November: Harry Power holds up the Mansfield coach near Jamison

11 Nov   James Smith hung at Beechworth Gaol

18 November: Wangaratta Police court , Mr A C Wills PM, Mr W A Dobbyn JP, William Barnett v Tom Lloyd for rescuing cattle Barnett was impounding, case dismissed.

In 1869 Creation of Eureka reserve by Ballarat East Borough Council

In 1869 Star hotel at Wang built

In 1869 NSW A young Bushranger called Mason rode with Thunderbolt's gang, he was captured by Constable Connery of Narrabri, but Mason was young so only jailed a short while

In 1869 NSW Bushranger William Monckton got 3 years jail, claimed he rode with bushranger Thunderbolt

In 1869 NSW Bushranger John Thomson (16) was with Thunderbolt gang doing hold up of hotel at Millie , Police shot him dead


By the 1870's the region of  NORTH- EAST  Victoria is sharply divided into two groups , the SQUATTERS and SELECTORS, because of bitter competition over land. 

01 February : At upper King river, Policeman Frost is shot at in attempt on his life  

14 Feb Beechworth Police Court Mr w Butler PM, John Sherritt charged with assaulting James Kelty

28 Feb Beechworth Police Court messers Berry and J Turner jp,  John Sherritt brought up again

February : John Evans jnr married Eleanor Whitty, daughter of Mark and Catherine Whitty (married for 63 years)

14 March : Harry power robs Julius Curr of his brown horse.

16 March : Power and Ned bail up  ROBERT  McBEAN  , power takes his watch, power lets it be known he will give the watch back for 15 pounds,  McBean visits his police mates at the Melbourne Club  , this brought about Powers  betrayal and capture and payment of 500 pounds reward to jack Lloyd.

April : Neds uncle Jack Lloyd was arrested under warrant, locked up at wang for highway robbery, no conviction, he looked like Harry Power

29 April : A 500 pound reward for capture of Power gazetted, that was equivalent to 4-5 years labouring wages.

 05 May : Ned (15) is arrested  as an apprentice bush ranger  to  HARRY POWER  on two charges of highway robbery under arms, appeared in Benalla court, magistrates Dr Richard Heath and Mr Perry , remanded in custody for 7 days. 

09 May : wang police court, Mr A C Wills PM, William Tomas vs Ellen Kelly, acquitted of selling sly grog on 30th march,  , prosecutor John Norton , Mr Lamont defended. Thomas claimed he asked for brandy at the Kelly house and was served some

12 May : At Benalla Police Court, Ned acquitted of 2 counts of highway robbery with Power as Mc Bean failed to identify Ned,  he was remanded to Kyneton on a charge of highway under arms , near Lauriston, he appeared at the police court and remanded again, the case seemed to fade away

23 May Castlemaine Ah Pew executed after tried and found guilty

25 May : Bushranger Fredrick Ward know as Captain Thunderbolt shot, by Constable Alex B Walker, Ward was buried at Uralla NSW. Constable Walker was awarded a Silver medal.

26 May Ned appears at Kyneton court house in connection with charges of highway robbery having been  remanded  over the Lauriston hold ups, Ned was transferred to Melbourne first and interrogated  for information on Harry Power, at Richmond depot by Standish, Nicolson, and Hare.

03 June: Ned had been in remand  but released from  KYNETON JAIL   for lack of evidence.  Sergeant Babington paid for his board at local hotel for few days after his release, until after the Harry Power capture to remove suspicion from Ned of dobbing in Harry.

 05  June : Harry power betrayed by Jack Lloyd and captured By Hare, Nicolson, Montfort and blacktracker Donald  on the hill behind Quinn's house The hill is now known as  POWERS LOOKOUT 

There are several versions of Harry's capture given by Hare, Nicolson, Montfort and Harry. 

13 June Beechworth Police Court Harry Power charged with robbery under arms, committed for trail

23 June Ned acquitted of robbery with Harry

28 July :Ned writes to Sergeant Babington

04 August Mel Patrick Smith executed after tried and found guilty

15 August Ararat Andrew Vair,  first there, executed after tried and found guilty

30 August Mel James Cusick executed after tried and found guilty

August :Ned is in brawl with uncle Pat and James Quinn at Greta, Senior constable Hall come to his rescue. , but Hall was beaten and also Constable Archdeacon, 

05 October : Bushranger Robert Campbell was hanged for murder of two brothers the Pohlmann's, on the Yanco creek near Jerilderie (NSW) in 1870.

13 October At Beechworth Police Court, chief justice Sir William Stawell, Patrick Quinn is charged with grievous bodily harm to Constable Hall, he got 3 months prison, 

02 October : HARRY POWER gets 15 years for highway robbery  by Judge Hackett at Beechworth General sessions, Harry may have been locked up in the  CELL   behind the town hall at Beechworth,  Harry spent 30 years of his life in jail can you imagine that ?

30 October: Fight between Mr and Mrs McCormick and Ned over use of horse

10 November At Wang courthouse, presided by Alex Tone jp, Mr A C Wills PM, Ned is jailed for three months for assault of Jeremiah McCormick and three months for obscene language insulting a women , known as the McCormick affair, he is locked up in Beechworth prison, along side his uncle Pat

14 Nov Mel James Sury executed after tried and found guilty

In 1870 Vic Bushranger Patrick Stanton (alias Jack Muck) roamed near Rutherglen, he held up a timber worker who gave him a beating and went to jail

The new Mansfield cemetery is established,  the first cemetery was at Butchers flat, some burials were on Delatite station

The last aborigine corrobabee in full war array held in Wangaratta. 

Botanist Baron Von Mueller first Government Botanist, introduced Blackberry vines, as part of a seed exchange program with other countries, you can thank him next time you are trying to fight your way into Kelly's creek, which now has an almost impenetrable barrier of blackberry's

1870 British troops withdrawn from Australia

1871 :

January: Foundation stone for Mansfield hospital laid , it cost $838.8.6

19 March: A horse which was a chestnut mare, and owned by the Mansfield postmaster Mr George Newland, was stolen by Wild Wright.

On the same day the school master from Black swamp,  William Adair had his horse stolen, William lived near Maindample, his horse was stolen by Neds brother in law Alex Gunn, he was later tried and found guilty and received 3 years jail.

29 March : Ned nearly sixteen, was released early ,and went home, there he  met "Wild" Wright he was a friend of Alex Gunn, "Wild"  had stolen a horse, seen by witness

The stolen horse escaped but was later found by Ned, he rode it into Wangaratta, where Ned stayed at the Star hotel in Wang, Peter Martin the publican, the Star was opposite Horse and Jockey hotel.

20 April : On returning to Greta, Out side the new hotel,  Ned gets into a brawl with Constable Hall , who shoots at Ned but his colt misfires, Ned is arrested and beaten by   Constable Hall  (SC 569)  , Dr Hester put 9 stiches in Ned's scalp

*21 April: In front of Alex Tone jp, Ned, Alex gunn, and wild Wright held at Wang on remanded for 7 days


25 April: The theft of the post masters horse is reported in Police Gazette


29 April Ned appears at Wang police court, Hall tells story of arrest of Ned

01 May: Ned committed for trial

The doctor James Hester, who tended to Ned's wounds  after being beaten by SC Hall at Greta DIED 

04 May Wild Wright charged with horse stealing and remanded

02  August :In front of Sir William Stawell jp, and prosecutor Henry j g Armstrong, at Beechworth, Ned #10926, is jailed for three years for receiving a stolen horse, stolen by "Wild"  Wright  who  only gets 18 months, witness John Daniell testified he saw Wild Wright saddle the horse at Maindample Park, after Ned gets out a 20 round boxing match is held between the two to settle the score , behind the Imperial Hotel Beechworth, beside spring creek*

03 Aug James "jimmy" Quinn jnr, charged at Wangaratta, for Threatening, five pound or six weeks jail, and charged with assault 3 months jail.

11 September : Ellen's two youngest boys Jim & Dan are before the court at Wang, for illegal use of Jims employer's horse, but dismissed because of age and knowing jims employer, Mark Krafft.

19 September Ellen kelly sues William Frost for maintenance, postponed 2 weeks

03 October Kelly vs Frost postponed again

13 October: Ellen sues Bill Frost for maintenance ,frost ordered to pay five shillings a week for two years

24 October: Ellen Kelly, Anne Gunn, James Murdoch, Anne Murdoch and William Skillion charged with furious riding, all acquitted of furious riding, Mr McDonnell defended all.

04 Nov   James Quinn hung at Beechworth Gaol  executed after tried and found guilty

04 December Mel Patrick Geary  executed after tried and found guilty

In 1871 The Mansfield Guardian newspaper is established by John Goodall, and absorbed two other papers "the Mansfield Courier" and the "Mansfield Independent" 

In 1871 Bushranger John Baker hanged at Bathurst NSW, his accomplice William Bertram had early been hung, they robbed many people from 1868 and murdered Charles Young in October 1869

1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes the use of an emulsion of gelatine and silver bromide on a glass plate, should be used in preference to collodion for coating dry plates, the "dry plate" process for photography


1872 :

02 January Anne Gunn witness at Benalla court in case of horse stealing

15 January : John King the only member of burke and wills trip that lived to tell the tale  DIED

16 January James Quinn and William Williamson remanded for assault of James Page

23 January James Quinn charged with assaulting Margeret Quinn, wife of Patrick Quinn at black springs

02 Feb: James "jimmy" Quinn jnr, and William Williamson at Beechworth, charged with bodily harm of Samuel Page and Tom Price, Quinn received 3 years jail, later 16.4.72 he received a further 18 months, later 17.4.73 he received a further 2 years jail, all run cumulative, defended by Fredrick Brown, Williamson 18 months for assault

28 January: Ellen's baby to frost,  baby "Ellen" died , only 14 months old

16 April At Beechworth in front of Judge Barry, James Quinn charged with wounding with intent

01 May : Sergeant Andrew Sutherland shot by Bushranger Grey

14 May Mel Edward Feeney  executed after tried and found guilty

20 May Castlemaine James Wilkie  executed after tried and found guilty

09 Nov: Birth of Anna Gunn jnr

09 May Joe Byrne first court appearance to testify for Ah Suey case, inquest at Andrews oriental hotel, Newtown

12 August John Sherritt charged with killing a beast without licence

11 November: Anna Gunn (kelly) snr, 18, dies  attended by Dr Henry

12 Nov Ellen Kelly and Jane Graham appeared over stolen property saddle but adjourned a week

19 November Ellen Kelly acquitted of stealing saddle prosecuted by Const E Flood

*In 1872 The NORTH EASTERN RAILWAY started construction , gates and gate house built at Beveridge lane crossing

20 November 1872 The first train arrived at Avenel, the first station master was Mr Hussey , this put and end to Coach's

23 Dec John Lloyd in court

24 Dec John Lloyd given caution and discharged

In 1872 Overland telegraph line from Adelaide to Port Darwin constructed

On 7th Sept 1872, first amateur photographic soc of NSW formed

1873 :

01 January : The Victorian Education act came into effect, some 433 schools became State Schools, education was compulsory and tuition free, Victoria's oldest state school is at Wangaratta.

01 Jan Thomas Lloyd in court

13 Jan John Lloyd in court

03 Feb: John Lloyd sen, at Beechworth, charged with killing a horse, 4 years jail.

27 Jan James Kelly and Thomas Williams charged with cattle stealing, remanded

February: Ned was transferred from Beechworth to Pentridge and then to the HULK ship Sacramento 

01 March  James Kelly and Thomas Williams in Wang court , committed for trial

11 March Castlemaine Samuel Wright  executed after tried and found guilty

04 April Jimmy Quinn assault trial at Beechworth, jury John Nicholls, Thomas Parnaby, Edwin Warden.

17 April : James (Jim) Kelly (age 14) #10861 and Thomas Williams (17), at Beechworth criminal sessions,  are sentenced by Judge Williams, to five years jail each, on two counts of cattle stealing. , he ignored the jury's recommendation for mercy, they stole a heifer from Andrew Curry at Winton,  jurors David McCorie, John Nicholls, John Whitehead, The Bowdern Family testified against the boys.

19 April : Hamilton Hume died and buried at Yass, Nsw.

19 April James Quinn faces court for assault of William Skillion, 2 years cumulative

12 May: Bushrangers James Smith and Thomas Brady were hung at Beechworth, for killing JOHN WATT at Wooragee in 1872.

20 May Castlemaine Pierre Barbun  executed after tried and found guilty

11 August Ballarat James Wallace  executed after tried and found guilty

17 September : Margaret Kelly married William Skillion at Benalla

22 Sept Joe Byrne fined 20s for illegally using wicks horse

November : Hugh Bracken resigns from Victorian police force, but rejoins later to chase the Kelly Gang

November 11-12 : The Great Carnival in Beechworth takes place to celebrate the Prince of Wales birthday, , and many other great events still take place in Beechworth

The railway is put through Euroa, Glenrowan and in October to Wangaratta, and later opened to Wodonga in November , bypassing Beechworth

In 1873 Euroa Township commenced to extend east over the creek, in Railway and Kirkland Streets at the time of the construction of the railway line

In 1873 At Avenel the toll house was removed and the land was an annex from the Imperial hotel

1873 John Wesley Hyatt trademarks the name "celluloid" in U.S. and Great Britain



02 February : Ned is released from Pentridge and states " He would rather face the gallows than go back to gaol"

19 February : Ellen Kelly married George King at Benalla married by William Gould, ned claims that Flood stole his horses  

04 April : Catherine Whitty dies , James Whitty gives local Church a stained glass window in her memory

08 July Bushrangers Larry Cummings and Frank Gardiner were pardoned from jail

03 July: A long debate about showing mercy to jailed Bushrangers started in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly.

 04 July : Constable Thomas Lonigan enters police force#2423


28 July James kelty and son Daniel charged with sheep stealing, remanded

30 July James Kelty and son Daniel charged with sheep stealing, committed for trial

24 August :20 round Bare knuckle BOXING MATCH  between Ned and "Wild" Wright at Edward Roger's  IMPERIAL  Hotel in Beechworth , on banks of spring creek, a photo was taken of ned in silks 

02 September The keltys in court case sent for retrial

04 September keltys in court again

05 October: Laurence O'Brien owner of hotel at Greta DIED

05 October Isaih "Wild" Wright in Oxley police court

13 October Wild Wright sentenced at Beechworth to three years hard labour for stealing a colt jointly owned by Andrew and John Byrne of Moyhu.

October: Colin Gardner became the Post Master of the newly named Milawa Post Office , Milawa was  known as "The Square" in early days, The Culphs had a blacksmith shop here.

31 December Beechworth, John Kelty vs Aaron Sherritt for assault

In 1874 A Toll gate is built at the north end of bridge at Benella

1874 - 1877

Ned works as a tree-feller for Saunders and Rule, farm labourer, stone mason and leading hand in saw mill, and on first and second sections of Beechworth Railway.

1875 :

07 June Ellen Kelly King called to give evidence at inquest at Oxley

01 July : Train line from Wangaratta to EVERTON opens for traffic 

09 August Castlemaine Ah Kat  executed after tried and found guilty

25 August At Violet Town Constable Lonigan charged with kicking a helpless drunk, fined two shillings

30 August Mel An Gaa  executed after tried and found guilty

The introduction of compulsory education started  

04 Oct Mel Henry Howard  executed after tried and found guilty

 November Aaron Sherritt charged with illegally using a horse, Mrs Kelty gave evidence against him

06 Dec Mel  John Weechurch  executed after tried and found guilty

07 December Aaron Sherritt charged with illegally using horse

09 December Joe Byrne was  charged with  stealing a saddle, case adjourned

 In 1875 The Police closed the station at Glenmore, after Bogong Jack vanished.



01 Feb Joe Byrne, Aaron Sherritt charged with not keeping cow hide, but dropped

22 May Castlemaine John Duffus  executed after tried and found guilty

30 May : Aaron Sherritt convict #13891 , and Joe Byrne at Beechworth petty sessions gets six months Hard Labour in Beechworth Jail, for unlawfully possession of cow on the 20th may

13 July : First train arrives in Beechworth

July NSW Policemen Sgt Foley and Constable Townsend shoot dead Catholic Priest Fr Healy by mistakeing him for Bushranger


03 August: Henry Lydeker had Ned Kelly in court at Oxley on charge of horse theft, evidence was inconclusive, so case dismissed.

21 August James (Jim) Kelly released from jail

21 August Ballarat James Ash  executed after tried and found guilty

16 Oct Dan Kelly charged with stealing saddle , committed to trial in Feb

November : Steele put in charge at Wang

11 Dec Mel Basilo Bondietto  executed after tried and found guilty

In 1876 Ned contracts for the  PINK GRANITE  house (farnley) at lake Mokoan  (then called Winton swamp) he carved 1876 in one of the blocks 

In 1876 Farmers' Arms Hotel Euroa, first traded, with John Shelswell as licensee

In 1876 Photographer John w Lindt came to Melbourne

1877 :

 In 1877 Ned and his stepfather George King operate a horse stealing racket, maybe as many as 200 


13 January Joe and Aaron get into fight with Ah On and Ah Seong, Ah On is hurt on head by stick and he goes to the Ovens district hospital at Beechworth

13 February : Joe Byrne and Aaron Sherritt committed for trial for assaulting a chinaman Ah On, after  a fight over swimming in his DAM  , that was next to the Byrne homestead. They were locked up in the Beechworth  JAIL , Aaron was defended by Fredrick Brown , Zincke for Byrne.


28 Feb Dan Kelly brought to trial, charged with stealing saddle , found not guilty

01 March Sherritt and Byrne in court, over Ah on

12 March Byrne and Whitty impounded fifteen horses with Oxley pound keeper George Kennedy, of these  2 bay mares were owned by Ned and Tom lloyd jnr.

14 March Mel William Hastings  executed after tried and found guilty

April : James Whitty takes possession of "Myrrhee" homestead

09 June Beechworth Thomas Hogan  executed after tried and found guilty

27 June : Neds brother Jim Kelly at Wagga in NSW is charged with Horse stealing, he  gets three years , this "saved" him from being at the Glenrowan siege.

30 July : At Wangaratta Petty Sessions Steve Hart gets 3 sentences of 4 months hard labour in Beechworth Gaol, for unlawfully using horse

14 July: Bushranger Cranley shot by Constable Bowen, near Tamworth NSW

01 August : Alex Fitzpatrick  Policeman #2867, arrives at Benalla

20 August : With the light of a full moon , 11 horses are stolen from the whitty's and Farrell's at Myrrhee some were sold to Samuel Kennedy and William Baumgarten at Barnawartha

11 September : Constables Michael Costigan and G R Armytage are both shot at Bourke

 17 September : Ned goes to Benalla,  gets "drunk" , maybe drugged by Fitzpatrick or the Publican , and gets locked up, 

18th Sept  Next day Ned gets into fight over putting on handcuffs on way to COURT  , which ends in Benalla BOOT SHOP  ,(sgt Whelan, day, fitzpatrick, lonigan), Ned gave up to Mr maginnis jp. Ned fined 4 pounds 6 shillings, Ned may have been locked in cell at back of courthouse.

27 September : Dan and tom  and jack Lloyd get in trouble with Mrs Amelia Goodman at Winton 

13 October: Jack Lloyd died from fall from horse the previous day

19 October : Dan #14991, Tom jnr and John ( jack ) Lloyd jnr stand trial at Benalla, , found not guilty of break and enter (goodman affair) , by magistrate Butler, Dan sentenced to 3 months jail for wilful damage, the Lloyd boys were sentenced to three months for wilful damage  Mr Goodman received 3 years for perjury against the boys

22 October : A lot of horses were stolen from Greta and Moyhu, around this time George King dissapeared. 

24 Oct :The North eastern stock protection league was formed, Andrew Byrne President,  Whitty offers 20 pound reward for conviction of horse thief.

10 Nov: William Baumgarten who lived near Barnawartha arrested for horse theft, by Mounted Constable William Bell, who was sent out in plain clothes to track horses. also Gustuv Baumgarten , John Studders and Samuel Kennedy from Howlong were arrested

22 Nov Baumgarten, Gustuv Baumgarten , John Studders and Samuel Kennedy in court over horse stealing, committed for trial

December : Ned builds his mother a NEW HOUSE  on the eleven mile creek  

 DAVID GAUNSON (Ned Kelly's lawyer) became member of Legislative Assembly for Ararat

In 1877 Martin Cash a Gentlemen Bushranger died of old age, he wore a "top hat" while on raids 

The first post office at Mansfield is built,

1877 August: American Photographer Eadweard Muybridge develops a fast shutter that aids him in making photographs of objects in motion

1877, Photographer Fox died at his home, Lacock Abbey, at age 77

1878 :

08 Jan: Black Wednesday, the "berry blight", to make budget , berry sacked public servants , County Court Judges, Police magistrates, Coroners, he also wanted to sack many high ranking cops.

8 Jan  - First telephone line in Australia established in Melbourne, one phone went to Madame "Mrs Brussels" 

28 Jan: Dan gets out of jail

28 Feb: Tom Lloyd jnr, at Beechworth, charged with Indecent assault, 4 months jail. 

01-02 March Baumgarten, Gustuv Baumgarten , John Studders and Samuel Kennedy in court over horse stealing,

20 March : The Queen Victoria Market officially opened. extensions built over cemetery

09 April A   WARRANT  is sworn at Chiltern by SC Lynch #708 for Ned, at the COURTHOUSE or POLICE STATION  which is near the OLD LOCKUP , charged with theft of horses at Myrrhee.

05 April: WARRANTS  for Dan and jack Lloyd issued  by Chiltern bench  by George c Darvall JP, for horse stealing.


15 April : Constable ALEX FITZPATRICK  read about the warrants in the police gazette while riding to Greta, he stopped at the HOTEL AT WINTON served a few brandy's by Mr Lindsay, then decided to go to the Kelly homestead, He is injured in the wrist at the Kelly household while trying to arrest Dan Kelly for horse stealing, Alex had no warrant and he disregarded the instruction that no less than two police ever go to Kelly house.

Ned and Dan fled to the bush , they camp at Bullock creek, now called KELLY'S  CREEK. 


17 April : Mrs Kelly arrested for attempted murder of Fitzpatrick. , remanded in custody by Willis Little hon jp.

25 April: John Lloyd arrested over Baumgarten case, and discharged, they failed to identify him.

26 April Mrs Kelly etc remanded in custody

29 April: A reward of 100 pounds each is offered for Ned .

01 May Baumgarten, Gustuv Baumgarten , John Studders and Samuel Kennedy, jury decision

16 May : Dr Rowe who shot at Ned and Harry DIED

17 May Mrs Kelly etc, committed for trial

27 May James Quinn charged with assault of Charles Askew, , committed to trial

31 : May : Mrs kelly BAILED by William Dinning and Robert Graham 

07 June: Steve Hart released from gaol "Freedom by remission"

15 July: James "Jimmy" Quinn jnr, discharged from jail.

15 September James Quinn tried, gets 3 months

20 September : NSW Senior Sergeant Thomas Wallings shot dead at Macquarie river by Bushranger Gibson

09- October At 10.00 am The three day trial started at Beechworth courthouse ,in front of Sir Redmond Barry sitting for the court of Assize,  the first defendants for the day were Ellen Kelly, William Williamson and William Skillion  , they were charged with wounding with intent to murder Constable Fitzpatrick at Greta, at the Kelly house. They all pleaded not guilty, they were defended by JJB Bowman , instructed by Mr Zincke. goes for three days

10 Oct Trial started at Beechworth courthouse ,in front of Sir Redmond BarryWilliam Baumgarten Samuel Kennedy , charged again with horse stealing, ken 6 years, bau to 4 years

12 October : Ned's mother Ellen is sentenced to three years with hard labour for aiding and abetting the attempted   murder of Constable Fitzpatrick, Williamson and Skillion get six years with hard labour. Bowman appeared for the Kelly's and Chomley ran the prosecution case. Fitzpatrick gave evidence as did Dr Nicholson. Lindsay told the court that Fitzpatrick had told him that he had been shot by Ned Kelly and Sgt Steele gave evidence about the arrests. Jury Foreman John Brewer, jury R Johnston, Edward Morgan, Patrick Feely.

October : A strange LETTER AND MAP  of possible hide out of Kelly gang is sent to Police, but no action taken on content.

                    Two Police search parties are sent to the Wombat


Ned finds horse tracks with police horse shoes in the vicinity of JOHNNY BYRNE'S  hut at Wombat (now called Tolmie) heading towards shingle hut at Stringybark creek

25 October : The 1st party from Greta was Senior Constables Strahan and Shoebridge #1142 and Constables Cornelius Ryan #2688 and Thom #2372.

26 October : The 2nd party from Mansfield was Constables LONIGAN  and,  SCANLON  AND KENNEDY , they are shot dead by the Kelly gang in a gun battle at STRINGYBARK CREEK  , Constable Mclntyre  escapes, this makes the boys "The Kelly Gang"

Det M Ward meets the First Police party between Powers lookout and Glenmore

27 October A report of 4 men possibly the Kelly gang seen passing through Oxley at night.  then went east to the Pioneer Bridge Hotel on the Ovens River

27 October : Constable McIntyre reaches the Mc COLL   homestead at Mansfield

  HENRY PEWTRESS mounts search party to Stringybark creek, helped by Mr Edward Monk a local saw miller, Police Con William Moore.

Pewtress sends Con Thomas Meehan #2526,  to Benalla , but he abandoned his horse and went on foot, He thought he was being followed by Bushrangers, but they were only two young boys 

29 October: Lonigan buried, it was for his murder ,Ned was charged , stood trial , and executed.

31 October : Kennedy's body found at  GERMANS CREEK by Mr Sparrow about 400 yards North West from Police camp.

 NovemberWith the passing of the Felons apprehension Act by the Government, The Kelly gang are declared outlaws , and could be shot on sight

01 November The gang head for NSW but  Murray river is flooded .

 02 NovemberUnable to cross the flooded Murray river the gang return home and  late at night they  visit the  VICTORIA HOTEL   at Everton for food and drink, the hotel is owned by Henry and Mary Vandenburg

 03 November : Very early in the morning the Gang are spotted going under one mile creek  RAIL WAY BRIDGE at Wangaratta and go up the main street, not knowing a lot of Police are in town..

 06 : November : Inspector Alex Brooke SMITH leads search party to warby ranges but he retards the pursuit  

 07  November : The Sherritt's and Byrne's get raided by up to 50 men, in the charge of  SEBASTAPOL     five days after the gang was seen there also known as Rats Castle, their police horses were kept in the stables in Beechworth.

10 November : Police found pack horse B87 in Warby Ranges

15 : November : The Victorian Governor passes the Felons' Apprehension Act, against  the kelly gang, which meant they could be legally shot on sight by anybody

19 November: A memo was sent by engineer in chief for railways to be watched

08 : December : Joe checks out Euroa

09: December : At about 12:30 pm, at Euroa the kelly gang capture the Young husband  homestead at  FAITHFULL'S CREEK , this homestead was an outstation of the 80,000 acre Euroa run, owned by Isaac Younghusband and Andrew Lyell, they detain 22 people including Andrew Morton, George Stephens, Peter Chivers, Macaulay, William Fitzgerald and his wife, and John Carson, 

In the evening James Gloster and his assistant Frank Becroft arrived and bailed the gang changed clothes from his wagon, 

10 December : In the morning the gang cut the telegraph wires, they also captured a hunting party, Henry Dudley, Robert MacDougall, Mr Tennant and David Casement,

Ned and Frank Becroft rode in Glosters wagon, Dan Kelly rode in a spring cart, and Steve Hart rode his horse,  Joe Byrne kept guard over the hostages, Joe bailed up Mr Watt a telegraph line repairman.

At about 4.00 pm, the Kelly gang hold up the NATIONAL BANK  at EUROA,  Mr Robert Scott the Bank manager, bank clerk Booth and bank teller Bradley, the robbery was watched by workers at the RAILWAY STATION , on the way back to the homestead at Faithfull's creek,  the group moving at a fast pace, upset the mourners at young 14YO  BILL GOUGE'S   funeral at EUROA CEMETERY  

Steve hart identified as gang member by female servant Fanny Shaw.  

Mr Booth asked the gang  for MOMENTO of raid they give him a bent SIXPENCE and Steve Hart give him a bullet with "H" .

The local magistrate Alfred Wyatt came to investigate the broken telegraph wires 

The story told by Mr Robert Scott the Bank manager and Mrs Scott are not quite the same, they returned to Euroa, between 9 and 10pm


12 December : Deadline for the GANG  to surrender at MANSFIELD COURT HOUSE    is passed, the courthouse was completed in 1879.


14 December : Cameron letter written by Ned and Joe

1878: Dry plates for photographs being manufactured commercially

1878 Among numerous English photographers, Charles Bennett improves gelatine dry plate photography, increasing the photosensitivity of the silver-salted gelatine emulsion (hence photographs take less exposure time) reported in the "British Journal of Photography."

1879  :

January : Aaron Sherritt is paid  two pound by Mr Hare for information about the gang, however his information was misleading and the Gang passed down stream by 100 km's

03 -10 January : The police arrested 30 suspected Kelly sympathisers and detained them in Beechworth jail, 23 were subsequently charged, and many of them were repeatedly remanded in custody for 4 months, the  police had NO evidence against them. This  caused a groundswell of support for the Gang and resentment of the government's misuse of power.

11 Jan Spy "H" charged

In February NSW brumby catchers turned  Bushrangers Thomas Gorman, William (Bill) Kaye, Charles Jones and William Hobbs (Hoppy Bill Hobbs) , had battle with police Constable Powers he was shot and wounded, they were sentenced to death, but later commuted to life


February : In the Jerilderie and Urana Gazette newspaper, Editor Samuel Gill tells the NSW Government that the town has inadequate Police protection, they did not listen

07 February The gang cross the Murray at BURRAMINE   near   YARRAWONGA    ,

08 February  After camping near the area  of BAROOGA AND BERRIGAN stations, at about 4.00 pm the gang arrived at Davidson's WOOLPACK INN , were Ned discovered the town had only two policemen, Senior Constable Devine and Constable Richards.

At about midnight the Gang tied up outside the COURTHOUSE, opposite the Police station, Ned rode up to the POLICE STATION yelling for the police to stop a drunken brawl at the Woolpack inn, the two police were taken prisoner  , and locked up in their own  CELL the gang took the Police uniforms.

09 February : Mrs Devine had to prepare the Courthouse for mass for priest Father Kieley, so Dan went with her. Joe had two horses re-shod by blacksmith Samuel Rea, the gang walked around the town in the Police uniforms and checked out the Royal Mail Hotel and Bank

10  February : The Kelly gang capture the towns folk of JERILDERIE    and bailed them up in the parlour of the hotel, and rob the bank of New South Wales next door, by holding up Manager Tarleton,  the accountant  EDWARD LIVING   and clerk Mackie , William Elliot, the local school teacher was forced to hold a sack for the 2,000 pounds, while Joe went to the telegraph office, three men arrived at the bank, Gill, Harkin and Rankin, Mr Gill the editor ran away in fear of his life, Ned went to Gills house, there Ned handed Mr Living a letter to be published by Gill, we now know that letter as the Jerilderie letter. Ned joined Joe and post master Jefferson at the telegraph office were they disabled the morse key, cut the wires and ordered some locals to cut down some poles.    Glergyman Gribble asked for his  watch back., Ned rode to the Albion hotel and had some drinks.

 Then the gang disappears for 16 months. 

17 February : Hare , Ward, their policemen and Aaron Sherritt start first cave party   directly above the Woolshed settlement, to watch Byrnes house, 1.5 miles away.

18 February : NSW Governor George Robinson under command of Henry Parkes  issued a  reward of £4,000, (or £1,000 for each outlaw). The Victorian Acting Premier BRYAN O'LOGHLEN increased its reward to match. With the  NSW reward the combined total increased to £8,000, (or £2,000.00 per outlaw),


March :The New South Welsh Premier Sir Henry Parkes, received a letter reported to be written by Ned. In it he declares, "I do not intend to be taken alive".

09 March : Qld Aboriginal trackers arrive in Benalla, they wore a blue uniform with red facings, and armed with snider rifles and a revolver.

19 march : Cpl Sambo (25) from QLD DIED in Benalla, Moses Bulla then joined the trackers

While on the run the  Kelly gang are reported to visit VINE HOTEL at Wangaratta through secret  TUNNEL  that goes under road, to the creek, but more likely the tunnel comes out at back of hotel, not far away.

06 May : Tom Lloyd charged with manslaughter of his cousin John Lloyd, heard at Beechworth court of Assizes in front of magistrate Stephan

06 July Hare replaced by Nicolson

22 July Aaron Sherritt charged by Mrs Byrne for horse stealing, remanded

26 July Aaron Sherritt case dismissed

15 August : The Commercial bank at Lancefield is robbed, by Robert Bray and Samuel Lowe, first thought was they were the "Kelly's"  ,The trackers were used .

16 August :James Wallace and Det M Ward meet at the Golden Ball Hotel, near Beechworth

03 NovemberEuroa shire was created by severance from Benalla shire

17 November : NSW  George Scott (Captain Moonlite) and his gang raided  Mr MacDonald's Wantabadgery station, Bushrangers James Nesbit and Augustus Wernick shot dead . also Constable Bowen at McGlede's hut, Graham Bennett wounded, George Scott (Captain Moonlite)  and Thomas Rogan later hanged, Bennett and Thomas Williams got life.


11 December : Bushranger #2172 Graham Bennett member of Moonlite gang, was sentenced to death for murder by Supreme Court in Sydney, but commuted to life in chains on roads, transferred to Berrima Gaol in 1880, then no more records

02 December - Cave party (continues for many days 2/12/1879 -1/4/1880),  Police cave parties watch BYRNE HOMESTEAD, Police camp at POLICE CAVES    during the day and sneak down to watch HOMESTEAD at night with Aaron Sherritt

26 December : Aaron Sherritt married Ellen Barry at St JOSEPHS  and moved into HUT AT DEVILS ELBOW   in the woolshed valley, the hut was bought with loaned Police money

*Rutherglen  the railway arrived in 1879*

Monument to the Soldiers killed at Eureka Stockade erected at old cemetery Ballarat

 1879 Photogravure was invented by Karl Klic in Austria ,  Photogravure is a photomechanical process; that is, one in which the finished prints are made in ink on a printing press. The method, one of the finest ever developed, transferred the photographic image to a copper printing plate, which was then etched to retain ink in areas corresponding to the blacks of the picture.  



1880    :

08 January: Father John L Scanlon, who presided over funerals of police at Mansfield, DIED

17 January: Jim Kelly released from jail

20 January : Bushranger Thomas Rogan #2171 and Bushranger Andrew George Scott   known as "Captain MOONLITE" hanged, he was once a church minister

February : The BERRY Government falls

22 March : First  MOULD BOARDS  stolen at Glenrowan,  to make ARMOUR, Mr Lennon did not believe the story until he was shown his trademarks, off a Lennon No 2 plough, the marks can be seen on Ned Kelly's armour at state library.

22 April : POLICE MEMORIAL   at Mansfield  unveiled 

April : Fitzpatrick discharged from police force

20 April: - Notice of Withdrawal of Reward posted by Government. It stated that after 20th July 1880 the Government would "absolutely cancel and withdraw the offer for the reward".

13  May : HUGH BRACKEN  is transferred to Glenrowan, as the lone Policeman there, as the town had no bank a peaceful  time was expected.

20 May :Daniel Kennedy (alias Diseased stock agent) writes letter to Nicolson, about making of armour , but he does nothing

31 May : Nicolson is replaced by Hare, 

22 June :             A FULL MOON RISES                                          

25 June : Hare sacks Daniel Kennedy for further reports on armour

26 June Prorogation of winter parliamentary session resulting in the expiry of the Felons' Apprehension Act 612. The gang's outlaw status is no longer in effect after the prorogation.


THIS IS THE APPROXIMATE TIME LINE FROM MANY CONFLICTING EYE WITNESS SOURCES, while the times are conflicting, the flow of events is about right !


26 June

6:15 pm Saturday night Mrs Barry, Belles mother arrived at Aaron's hut in the Woolshed Valley Beechworth, to have dinner with them

6.30 pm  ANTON WICK is BAILED UP  and handcuffed by JOE AND DAN, the boys tied up their horses at maiden hair gully, they used Anton to lure Aaron Sherritt to open this FRONT DOOR  , Aaron is shot dead with two shots by Joe Byrne ( wearing his bush clothes)  while four Police hide under the bed, using Bell as human cover.

At about 9.00pm Anton is released and goes   HOME , The most likely  ESCAPE route that Dan and Joe used was up through Beechworth, down to Everton , crossed  the 9 BRIDGES leading to the OVENS RIVER PIONEER BRIDGE, across the Oxley Flats and on to Glenrowan.

27 June Sunday morning about 1.00am,  Ned and Steve hart arrive at  GLENROWAN  they plan to tear up the train rails, but they need help.   

2.00am Ned forced Mr Reardon  and  Mr Sullivan, plate layers and a fettler named McHugh,   to rip up RAILS, above the CULVERT so to crash the special train into the  GULLY

7.00 am The Four Police at the woolshed valley, had stayed inside Aaron's hut till morning they were afraid to come out in the dark, Armstrong tries to get a chinaman to send a message to Beechworth, but returns it, He also asks Cornelius O'Donaghue, but he clamed his wife would not let him go.

11.00 am Thomas Curnow and family bailed up by Ned

By about midday around sixty-two prisoners were in Ann Jones inn 

1.00 pm The Policeman made it to Beechworth and the first message is sent from the Beechworth TELEGRAPH Office about Aaron's death

5.00 pm On News of Aaron, Robert Ramsay, the chief secretary ordered a "special train" to be sent to Glenrowan, fireman was john c Stewart.

At Benalla train #107 was READIED AS PILOT for special police train from Melbourne, by driver  and Fireman , the Station Master at Benalla was Mr Stephens

10.00pm Police special train left Spencer st station, it stopped at Essendon station to pick up Sub-Inspector O'Conner and Aboriginal trackers, also Mrs O'Conner and her sister Mrs Webb,   the guards man was Mr Bell, this train hit the railway gate at Craigieburne, this broke the spring hanger, tore off the step and snapped off the gate shaft, the driver told  guard Bell the brakes had gone, the train continues with Bell using  the brake vans brakes.

10.30pm Ned released the Curnow  family they the left Inn  to return home, but Curnow had a plan to stop the train. 


 28 June :

 2.00am The pilot train left Benalla with the special train leaving five minutes later with Mr Hare and horses

2.30 am Dan Kelly told the crowd that Ned decided to let the civilians go home and the gang should leave, but he first gives them a "lecture", that was his mistake.

3.00 am  Thomas Curnow left his school house, and on a straight stretch of track near where the curve commenced, stops the PILOT ENGINE ahead of the special train carrying the police to Beechworth. Curnow used his sister's red  SCARF and a candle to stop the pilot train ,  guard Archibald McPhee is credited with being  told by Curnow the Kelly's were in Glenrowan and had torn up the rails,  

The Police on board the special were  Hare, O'Connor, SC Kelly, Consts Arthur, Barry, Canny, Gascoigne, Kirkham, and Phillips, Black Trackers Barney, Jacky, Jimmy, Johnny, and Hero,

Pilot engine train crew from Benalla :  Driver Henry W Adler, and Fireman Mr Hugh Burch , guard Archibald McPhee

Special Train crew: Drivers John Bowman , Richard Coleman , Fireman Herbert Hollows & Stewart,  Guard Bell, also Jesse Dowsett , 

Press aboard the special train: George Allen (Daily Telegraph), Carrington, McWhirter (Age), and Melvin (Argus), also Mrs O'Connor, Mrs O'Conner's sister Miss Catherine Webb and Charles Rawlins. 

After the train was stopped by Curnow, Driver Alder remarked to Mr Hare it would be advisable to couple both trains together, Hare agreed, The trains then moved slowly up to the station, and the police started to unload their horses.

Hare with a few Police ,  go to the Stanistreet house and learn the Kelly Gang had taken the stationmaster.

Const Bracken escaped the Inn by stealing front door key, ran to the station and warned Hare the Kelly's were in the Inn

Meanwhile Ned , Dan, Steve and Joe put on their Armour


The moon was high in the sky behind Morgans lookout, The gang were on the front verandah of Ann Jones  Glenrowan Inn. Hare and police started off on foot for the Inn. Bracken rode off to Wang, to get Sgt steele. 

In the first volley Hare was shot in the wrist,  Carrington later bandaged his wrist, Ned Kelly was shot in the left arm possibly by CONSTABLE GASCOIGNE   with a .45 MARTINI HENRY, making four wounds in his arm, and then someone shot Ned in the right foot,  Joe Byrne was shot in the calf, as  police bullets ripped through the Inn walls, the people in the Inn lay on  the floor. Mrs Jones' son, Jack, was shot near the hip. Jane Jones was grazed on the fore head, later  Neil McHugh brought injured Jack Jones out of the Inn

O'conner and two aboriginal troopers Johnny and jimmy took shelter  in the drains at the front of hotel

3.10 am *Jack Lloyd fired 2 signal rockets*in front of McDonnells hotel, 

3.40am Hare ordered one of the trains to Benalla  to inform Mr Sadlier of what was happening and to bring back more men and ammo.

3.50am The wounded Hare returned to Benalla in the second train,  driver Bowman, snr const Kelly took over

4.30 am Ned rode into the bush to stop the army of sympathisers, he left his blood soaked cap and rifle behind.

5.00 am Steele and five troopers arrive, from Wang, and started shooting into the Inn, Steele later wounded young Michael Reardon, 

5.10am Sadleir & party from Benalla arrived at Glenrowan

5.30am A police bullet gets under  the  ARMOUR  worn by Joe Byrne he is shot dead, 35 hours after he shot Aaron Sherritt.

* The police suspected that Thomas Straughair had made Joe Byrne's armour which was the finest suit of armour of the gang*

6.00 am Ned leaves the Inn again, but Dan and Steve stay behind

7.00am The rail line had been repaired, Policemen  Kelly and James M Arthur # 2971 find Ned's cap and COLT  rifle, about 100 yards north east of the Inn,  Moses found Neds other rifle, 

7.15am  Ned wearing his armour  attacks the Police by firing his PISTOLS , a long barrelled navy colt  owned by Policeman Devine from Jerilderie, a .31 pocket Colt, a .45 Webley  belonging to Lonigan, the "Last Stand" lasts about ten - twenty minutes, but Ned is BROUGHT DOWN  by two shots in the legs from Steele,  Dowsett and Bracken stop Steele from killing Ned, 

Ned is badly wounded , he had 5 serious wounds, 25 wounds on his hands, legs and arms, his body was badly bruised from the percussion of the bullets against his armour, and his legs were blackened, Ned had a hole in his left fore arm were a bullet had gone clean through, another bullet lodged in the bone of his elbow joint, his right foot was slit from a bullet that entered near to big toe and traveled along the length of the foot and exited at the heel, his right hand was riddled with shot at the base of the thumb.

Ned is taken down to the GLENROWAN RAILWAY STATION where his wounds where treated by Dr Nicholson ,  he removed the green and gold sash. his BOOT was cut off, by reporter McWirter

Thomas  Madeley  from Benalla, started taking pictures of the Inn (and later burned bodies)

10.00 am Sadleir called a cease fire and let the prisoners out of the inn, The  McAuliffes were arrested as sympathizers, Police hear of Joe's death; only Dan Kelly and Steve Hart left in Inn

10.15 am Standish leaves Melbourne on a special train

12 noon Beechworth police arrive at Glenrowan, priest Gibney arrived and heard Ned's confession

1.00pm No more shots were heard from the Inn

2.30 pm Standish's train arrives at Benalla, sees Hare,  Constable Charles Johnston volunteered to set fire to the Inn, but as a cannon had been ordered and was on its way to blow up the Inn, this was denied

3pm Sadleir agrees to plan to set fire to Inn, and the cannon turned back from Seymour station, Police man Johnston sets fire to the Inn,  Father Gibney runs into the inn and Police drag Joe's body out, martin cherry is dragged clear but dies soon after from police bullets,  The INN  is burnt to the ground, 

4.30pm Bodies of Dan and Steve removed from the burnt Inn, Sadleir agrees to hand Dan & Steve's bodies over to the families

4.45 pm Standish arrived at Glenrowan

JOHNNY JONES died later at Wang, and   George Metcalfe dies later in Melbourne in the Eye and Ear Hospital

Ned and Joes dead body are taken to BENALLA CELLS by train that evening, Ned should have been sent to Beechworth, Ned was interviewed by reporter Gale from the Daily Telegraph, printed 30 June.

The listed Police officers who took part in the siege 

Officers, Sergeants, and Constables who took part in the capture of the Kelly gang of outlaws on the 28th June, 1880:—Superintendent F. Hare, Senior-constable John Kelly, Mounted-constable Daniel Barry, Mounted-constable William. Phillips, Mounted-constable J. M. Arthur, Mounted-constable Thomas Kirkham, Mounted-constable P. C. Gascoigne, Mounted-constable William Canny, Sub-inspector S. O’Connor, Tracker Hero, Tracker Barney, Tracker Johnny, Tracker Jacky, Tracker Jimmy, 

Superintendent John Sadleir, Sergeant James Whelan, Senior-constable R. A. Smyth, Mounted-constable Robert Graham, Mounted-constable C. Ryan, Mounted-constable W. J. R. Wallace, Mounted-constable P. P. Wilson, Mounted-constable J. L. Stilliard, Foot-constable Patrick Kelly, Foot-constable Thomas Reilly, Foot-constable John Milne, Foot-constable T. M. Hewitt, Tracker Moses, Tracker Spider,

 Sergeant A. L. Steele, Mounted-constable J. Montiford, Mounted-constable Wm. Moore, Mounted-constable P. Heally, Mounted-constable J. F. Dixon, Foot-constable Patrick Walsh, Foot-constable James Dwyer, Senior-constable Charles Johnston, Mounted-constable Thomas Meehan, Mounted-constable T. E. Dwyer, Foot-constable J. H. Stow, Foot-constable P. McDonald.

The names of the members of the force from Beechworth who assisted at the capture of the outlaws are:—Senior-constable P. Mullane, Mounted-constable A. Alexander, Foot-constable R. Wickham, Foot-constable H. Armstrong, Foot-constable R. McHugh, Foot-constable W. Duross, Foot-constable R. Glenny, Mounted-constable R. Alexander, Foot-constable T. P. Dowling, Mounted-constable C. F. Magor, Mounted-constable R. McColl.


29 June : Joe Byrne is strung up in front of Benalla cells and PHOTOGRAPHED , by John Lindt and Arthur Burman , Julian Ashton sketched Joes body in the cell the night before,  Inquest into Joe Byrne's death, at about 4.00pm Joe is secretly BURIED  at Benalla, Martin Cherry's body is taken to ? hotel for police inquest, and is BURIED  at Benalla,  Ned Kelly taken down to Melbourne by train in the guards van , the train guard was WILLIAM McNABB .


30 June:  Undertaker John Grant provided the coffins for DAN AND STEVE which are  buried at Greta,  service conducted by Dan O'Keeffe .

30 June :*Aaron Sherritt's  body was brought to Beechworth it was identified by Anton Wicks at the VINE HOTEL , Mr Foster PM went  and saw the scene of the murder,  The magisterial inquiry  into Aaron's  death,  was held  at Beechworth police court before Mr Foster, PM, and a jury consisting of George Dennett,  William Newson, Patrick Allen, Michael Dodd,  Joseph Wertheim, James Ingram, Ralph Hall, John Nerastis, Samuel Broadfoot,  Louis L Sanderson, James Ward and William Murdoch.  At the Beechworth Vine hotel.  Dr William Dobbyn performed a post mortem on Aaron*

30 June: Aaron Sherritt buried at Beechworth

June :Thomas Curnow and family immediately left Glenrowan in fear of his life, they went to Ballarat.

Ann Jones was arrested for concealing an outlaw, but acquitted

Father Gibney went to Perth and became a Bishop

At Jerilderie , the bank manager Tarleton was moved and replaced by Mr Meridith

Mr Cox from the Royal mail hotel moved to Hay

Reverend Gribble moved to Western Australia

Samuel Gill the newspaper man moved to Melbourne

Superintendent Hare nursed his wrist at the Clarke mansion in Sunbury, attended by Dr Ryan

The Black trackers went back to Queensland, the Victorian Police went off Double pay

The Police spies and agents quaked in their boots


July : Ned spends most of the first two months at the Melbourne jail in the HOSPITAL .

09 July : Hugh Bracken transferred to Richmond police depot at his request

06 -14 August : Ned is brought to BEECHWORTH  BY TRAIN, as he passed the empire hotel Zincke and two women were standing on the balcony, the women were Mrs Barry and Aaron's widow Belle, Ned was sneaked in the back door of the courthouse.

In  the BEECHWORTH MAGISTRATES COURT    Ned is committed to trail for murder and may have been held in the stone LOCK UP   in the Police paddock then transferred back to Melbourne from WANGARATTA station

During Neds trial Maggie and Tom Lloyd stayed at the HIBERNIAN HOTEL

09 September : Hugh Bracken transferred to Wallan.

01 October: Melbourne International Exhibition opens in the Exhibition Building, attracts 1,330,000 visitors

15 : October : George Metcalf , a hostage at Glenrowan DIED in the Melbourne eye and ear hospital from wounds he got at the Glenrowan siege 

27 October :S T Gill,  goldfield artist DIED

29 October : Ned is found guilty of murder in the supreme court Melbourne and sentenced to death by hanging, the Judge was SIR REDMOND BARRY . jurors: George Dawe, Alexander Forrester.

06 November: Mass meeting at Hippodrome, to commute the death sentence on Ned, chairman Archibald Hamilton

10 November : Ned has two photos taken of HIMSELF taken by Charles Nettleton

11 November : Ned is HANGED in the OLD MELBOURNE GOAL  The Common hangman was Elijah Upjohn , his first hanging, Maximilian kreitmayer made a death mask, then a group of Doctors beheaded Ned and removed his organs, and next day   BURIED  on the grounds , it was estimated the Kelly out break cost the Government 150,000 pounds.

11 November : Jim and Kate are BILLED to appear at APOLLO HALL above Bourke street eastern arcade


Ned's death starts a series of deaths of main players in story until they are all gone


17 November : The Kelly Reward Board  starts to meet 

23 November : Neds trail judge Sir Redmond Barry DIED

In 1880 Population 281,000

In 1880 Senior Constable Devine resigned and moved to Western Australia.

1880: Photographer George Eastman, age 24, sets up Eastman Dry Plate Company in Rochester, New York. First half-tone photograph appears in a daily newspaper, the New York Graphic


14 February :Mrs Kelly returns from gaol 

07 March The Royal Commission was established  to
1. To inquire into the circumstances preceding and attending the Kelly outbreak.
2. As to the efficiency of the police to deal with such possible occurrences.
3. To inquire into the action of the police authorities during the period the Kelly gang were at large.
4. The efficiency of the means employed for their capture; and
5. Generally to inquire into and report upon the present state and organization of the police force.

23 March  : Royal Commission on the Police force of Victoria starts , they asked nearly  8000 questions they examined 60 Witnesses

The Commission was made of 8 members

Chairman     Francis  Longmore

Members  William Anderson,    Edward Dixon,      George Fincham,      James GibbJames Graves,     George Wilson HallGeorge Levey,   


20 April: Hugh Burch Fireman from pilot engine died

07 May   Mrs Jones the owner of the Glenrowan Inn, was acquitted at the Beechworth assizes,  on the charge of harbouring the late Kelly gang.

06 June Beechworth Robert Rohan  executed after tried and found guilty

15 June Policeman James Babington  DIED

01: July : Two detectives are sent to Kelly country to obtain evidence to prosecute those who made the armour and anyone who gave aid to the gang.

06: July :First Report
The first report made a number of specific recommendations
- Inspector O'Conner not be appointed as an officer in the Victoria Police
- the permanent employment of black trackers as an auxiliary branch of the police service
- a thorough system of police patrol shall be established throughout the colony, more especially in the North-Eastern district
- that immediate steps be taken to arm the mounted police of the colony with the Regulation Pattern Martini-Henry carbine.

           July : Awards of  8,000  pounds granted from Kelly Reward Board

Sir Charles MacmahonJames Macbain,   Robert Murray Smith


September : Policeman Graham with PC Wallace, sets up police station in O'Brien's hotel Greta , Wallace went on to marry Mrs O'Brien


October :Second Report:
The second report was issued at the end of the Royal Commission in October 1881. They made a number of specific recommendations and then issued a description of the main events of the hunt for the Kelly Gang

24 October Robert Hoddle the man who set out Melbourne's streets DIED

26 Oct Piazzi died

1882 :


23 January:  William A D Anderson, the commander of the Artillery at the time of siege, DIED 

24 : MarchInspector Alex Brooke Smith DIED      

15 April Jane Jones died

23 May  Chief Secretary of Victoria and MLA Robert Ramsay DIED

11 July Old James Whitty DIED

03 November : William Adair school master from Black swamp near Maindample, died

11 November : George Sharpe jp,  he heard Ah Fook case, DIED

In 1882 William Frost was poisoned and died

1883  : 

19 March: Fredrick Charles Standish  DIED  at Melbourne club , his name is remembered in a horse race every new years day called the Standish handicap run at Flemington at Melbourne.

17 April: Barrister for the Crown at proceedings against Ned at Beechworth, Henry Gurner  DIED

09 May : Hugh Bracken discharged from police force

31 July : Captain Daniel Nicolson who was responsible for getting cannon to Glenrowan DIED

 25 September Ararat Robert francis Burns  executed after tried and found guilty

1884 :

Permanent MONUMENT for diggers that died, built on Eureka reserve Ballarat


08 May Ararat Henry Morgan  executed after tried and found guilty

04 August: Undertaker John Grant, who provided coffins for Dan and Steve Died

04 August Henry Lydeker DIED

21 August Mel James Hawthorn  executed after tried and found guilty

24 October Mel William O'Brien  executed after tried and found guilty

 Ellen (bell) Sherritt (Barry) remarried to Michael Murphy and raised a family at woolshed

1884 : Celluloid had been invented in the early eighteen-sixties, and John Carbutt persuaded a manufacturer to produce very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material. George Eastman is particularly remembered for introducing flexible film in 1884. later he introduced the box camera, and photography could now reach a much greater number of people

In 1884 Thomas Baker put his dry plates on the market and formed the Austral Plate Co at Abbotsford in Melbourne
In 1887 Baker was joined by JJ Rouse was later became Kodak (Australasia)


15 May Mel William Barnes  executed after tried and found guilty

14 July : Bushranger Thomas Williams a member of Captain Moonlite gang, hung for attempted murder of another prisoner at Berrima jail 

03 September Ballarat Charles Busby  executed after tried and found guilty

27 November Bendigo Edward Hunter  executed after tried and found guilty

*Power released He was asked to be a tour guide on the hulk "Success"


1886      All possibility of second outbreak had gone, however there were reports of up to 20 suits of armour being made

07 January Mel Freeland Morrell  executed after tried and found guilty

In 1886 local inventor Mr Wilson a plumber, invented a machine for the Albion hotel in Wangaratta, that produced gas for the hotels chandelier, it was a gas generator that produced one hundred feet of gas from one pound of rich fat


17 April West Australia Bushranger T Hughes shot dead Constable O'Connell, Hughes was caught on 17 july and sent to jail

11 June : Policeman Duross DIED

In 1887 Fr. Matthew Gibney was consecrated BISHOP  after the death of Dr. Griver

1887 December: The Eastman company starts use of the Kodak trademark

1887 The Reverend Hannibal Goodwin, a minister at the House of Prayer in Newark, New Jersey, invents a method for making transparent, flexible film and applies for a

1887 Flashlight Powder, Blitzlichtpulver  was invented in Germany in 1887 by Adolf Miethe and Johannes Gaedicke. Lycopodium powder (the waxy spores from club moss) was used in early flash powder.


1888 :

10 October : ONE of the last few of the Wangaratta aborigine Pangerang tribe Mary Jane Milawa DIED 

08 Nov Mel George Syme  executed after tried and found guilty

25 November : Kate Kelly married William Foster , in Forbes NSW

In 1888: First Kodak camera, containing a 20-foot roll of paper, enough for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures

1889  : 

Grace Kelly marries Edward Griffiths

Peter Lalor leader of Eureka DIED

28 January:  Judge Charles p Hackett, the judge who sentenced Harry Power to 15 years died in London.

18 March Bendigo William Harrison  executed after tried and found guilty

16 September Mel Filipi cartin Castillio  executed after tried and found guilty

16 October Mel Robert Landells  executed after tried and found guilty

1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of paper


In 1890 Charles Nettleton closed his studio in 1890

In 1890 Thomas baker of Melbourne useing a dry plate took several photos of carbine at Melbourne cup


1891 :

16 March Mel John thomas Phelan  executed after tried and found guilty

23 March Mel John Wilson  executed after tried and found guilty

March : John Humffray one of the Eureka leaders DIED, buried near miners mass grave

20 April Ballarat Cornelious Bourke  executed after tried and found guilty

27 April Mel Fatta Chand  executed after tried and found guilty

11 May Ballarat John Wilson  executed after tried and found guilty

18 May Ballarat James Johnston  executed after tried and found guilty

24 August Mel William Colston  executed after tried and found guilty

18 October : Harry power (71) "drowns" at Swan Hill His body was found by captain of paddle steamer Rothbury, he was buried at Swan hill.

28 Aug: Charles McMahon DIED

02 November: Father William Tierney, who appointed teacher Cornelius O'Donoghue, teacher of Woolshed school  DIED

In Early 1891 it was reported that Harry power returned to the north east and openly spoke about a bag of money that he had hidden under a tree on the king river and could not find, and he was looking for it, but it seems unlikely that it was true why would you tell anybody about a lost bag of loot ?

1892 :

Hare publishes his book "The last of the Bushrangers"

01 April:  SC Edward Hall, the man who beat Ned with his pistol died 

23 May Mel Fredrick Deeming  executed after tried and found guilty

09 July : Police Superintendent Francis Augustus Hare (61) DIED at Rupertswood 

04 Nov : James McBain DIED


22 January : Owner of "Lima station" near Benalla, James W Mckeller jp, DIED 

18 March : Anton Wick  DIED  and buried  next to his wife (d 1870)

28 August Mel John Conder  executed after tried and found guilty

27 September : Henry Bindon Neds counsel for defence at his trial  DIED

31 December : WB Montfort pensioned from police force

  MONUMENT to honour Peter Lalor leader of Eureka, erected in main street of Ballarat


Female prison at Pentridge (D Division ) opened

15 Jan Mel Frances Knorr (female)   executed after tried and found guilty

10 Feb : In the Mansfield Courier is a report by Mr Perkins who writes about a visit to Mr Stokes who lives at Kelly's creek, he claims then you could still see the Kelly hut fire places across the creek from Stokes

19 March Mel Ernest Knox  executed after tried and found guilty, his skull was stolen

20 August Mel Fredrick Jordan  executed after tried and found guilty

22 October Mel Martha Needle (female)  executed after tried and found guilty

12 Nov Ballarat Elijah Cockroft  executed after tried and found guilty


29 Jan  Income tax introduced in Victoria

01 July Mel Arthur Buck  executed after tried and found guilty

23 July : Bushranger James "Alpin" McPherson known as "The Wild Scotsman" died from being thrown off his horse, one of the few Bushrangers in Queensland.  

August : The ship  "Catterhun" was sunk with 11,000 gold sovereigns worth at least $200,000 today

04 Nov Mel Emma Williams (female)  executed after tried and found guilty, drowned her son

In 1895 Louis and August lumiere two French chemists, opened the first movie pictures, called le cinematograph the first cinema in Paris, and showed short gazettes




Sgt AL Steele retired from police, he lived in Reid st near water filter, he was given a sword. by the Moyhu stock protection society

13 Jan Mel Charles Henry Strange  executed after tried and found guilty

22 January : Margaret Skillion / Lloyd 1st wife of Tom Lloyd jnr died,  

Jan 1896 Walter Barnett met Maurice Sestier who worked for lumiere,  Barnett offered to finance him and come to Australia.

April : Sir Henry Parkes, premier of NSW DIED

18 August: William Zincke Ned and others solicitor DIED

22 Sept 1896 The first movie camera came to Oz, Sestier took movies of Sydney harbour, each film about 60 ft.
Sestier was not good at developing so Arthur Peters made a drum machine that ran the film correctly through the chemical developer tanks this same process is still the same today

28 Sept First Sestier movie made in Oz shown @ 1Shilling  each

October 1896 Carl Hertz in Sydney was first to SHOW a movie made outside Australia, in oz

November Sesteir moved to Melbourne to film the Melbourne cup, but the film was too slow to film the race, but pictures of crowd taken, the film was taken back to Sydney and processed, it now lives in Paris.

31 December : John Sadleir pensioned from police force

In 1896 : George Newland postmaster at Mansfield who had his horse stolen by Wild Wright died


15 May  W Clarke DIED, he was given Joe Byrne's armour by Hare

13 September Bendigo Charles j Hall  executed after tried and found guilty


1898 :

31 March: Edwin Warden, juror at Jimmy Quinn trial in 1873,  DIED

01 May : Chairman of Royal Commission Francis Longmore DIED

10 June: Dr William Dobbyn jp, well known Beechworth doctor  DIED

06 OctoberKate Kelly (Mrs Foster) died at Forbes NSW , in very suspicious circumstances

21 Nov Mel Alfred Archer executed after tried and found guilty


18 June : Ernest Flood (Police man) a thorn in Ned's side DIED

1900 :

 25 February : Constable Hugh Bracken (60) died by his own hand and buried in unmarked grave at WALLAN

 26 March Mel William robert Jones executed after tried and found guilty

 June: Mr Sherritt snr died (73) (Aaron's father) 

September : Warrant for Jimmy and Joe Governor issued

In 1900. First motor cars in Melbourne

1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced


The Australian Coat of Arms consists of the Badges of the six States of the Commonwealth arranged on a shield in two rows of three columns:
New South Wales - Golden Lion passant (right to left) on a red St George's Cross on a silver background (usually depicted white), with an 8-pointed star on each extremity of the cross. 
- White Southern Cross (one star of 8 points, 2 of 7 points one of 6 points and one of 5 points), beneath an Imperial Crown, on a blue background. 
- light blue Maltese Cross with an Imperial Crown at its Centre, on a white background. 
South Australia
- the White-Backed Magpie (or Piping Shrike), erect, wings outstretched, on a yellow background. 
Western Australia - Black Swan swimming, left to right, on a yellow background. 
Tasmania - Red Lion passant (right to left) on a white background.


Federation of the Six colonies become an independent Government of the Commonwealth of Australia, with Edmund Barton as the first prime minister .

03 January: Policeman Robert Smyth DIED

14 January:  NSW Bushranger Jacky Underwood an Aboriginal hanged by executioner Robert (nosey bob) Howard. He was part of the Governor gang who murdered nine people

18 January : Bushranger Jimmy Governor #8194 hanged by executioner Robert (nosey bob) Howard. his brother Joe was killed by civilian john Singleton

22 January : Queen Victoria died, succeeded by Edward v11

15 February : Doctor Samuel Reynolds  DIED  at Mansfield  , he helped to recover the  bodies, and performed post mortem on police from Stringybark creek, and gave report to coroner  at inquest , The towns people of Mansfield erected a drinking FOUNTAIN  in his name

February Bushranger Jack Bradshaw was released from jail, after about 20 years jail for robbery with a Bushranger called "lovely" Riley, he then made a living from writing and lecturing about his bushranging, he died an old man, one of the few bushrangers to live to old age

20 March: First federal elections held, Edmund Barton returned as prime minister

09 May  Duke of Cornwall and York opens first Commonwealth parliament in Exhibition Building

03 Sep  Australian flag chosen by competition from 30,000 designs displayed at the Exhibition Building


1902 :

04th Jan Charles Nettleton died  76

14 April Mel Albert edward Mcnamara executed after tried and found guilty

27 June: Arthur P Akehurst, the magistrate who found Ellen Kelly guilty of "affray" at Avenel died 

20 October Mel August Tisler executed after tried and found guilty

In 1902 Patrick McDonnell owner of pub at Glenrowan died 

In 1902 Police catch the Kenniff brothers (James and Patrick), Queensland's last Bushrangers, in Lethbridges Pocket, they are believed to have murdered Constable George Doyle and station manager Christian Dahlke who were executing a warrant for the brothers' arrest. Evidence indicated that Doyle and Dahlkes bodies were burnt on a large rock, the incineration site, in a creek not far from the murder scene.

Several days after the event Constable Millard from Warrego Police Station found Doyle's horse carrying saddle bags containing a grisly 200 lbs of charcoal, burnt human remains and clothing

1903 :

09 July: Fredrick Brown, Beechworth solicitor who defended many in Kelly story,   DIED

31 August: Father Charles O'Hea DIED

August: Thomas Tanswell , Beechworth hotel owner DIED

The Finger print branch of the Victoria Police established 


13 April :  Henry Adams warder at old Melbourne jail died

13 July : Robert Rede Gold Commissioner to Ballarat during Eureka and Sheriff at Ned's trial DIED

03 Aug : Woolshed teacher Corn O'Donoghue DIED

08 September Mel James Williams executed after tried and found guilty


25 January: Premier of Victoria for most of the Kelly out break Graham Berry DIED 

05 May: William Bickerton pm, he was to conduct inquest of Dan and Steve   DIED

23 October: Senior Constable Frank James  DIED

31 Oct:  Victorian Attorney General and acting Chief Secretary when he signed the 8,000 pound reward poster for the Kelly gang, Bryan O'loghlen DIED

24 Dec: Policeman WB Montfort DIED

1906 :

Paddy Byrne and Jack Sherritt meet at  Rail way Hotel Beechworth

30 January: Bushranger John Vane died 

01 June : Max Kreitmayer who made death mask of Ned DIED

12 July : Policeman and later Chief Commissioner of Police, Hussey Chomley  DIED 

02 October : Richard Warren, Owner of Ovens and Murray Advertiser DIED

In 1906 The first Ned Kelly film made in western Australia "The Kelly gang"

 2nd NED KELLY FILM MADE, called "The story of Ned Kelly" made by Charles Tait in Mitcham, suburb of Melbourne. 

In 1906: Mr Uren with the help of Police and Dr Nicolson dug around the Faithfull tree at Benalla , they found some of the skeletons of the murdered men, their skulls showed signs of being hit with a nulla nulla.


18 July:: Hickman Molesworth barrister briefed to defend Ned  DIED

1907: First commercial colour film, the Autochrome plates, manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France In France, Auguste and Louis Lumiere introduce the Autochrome, the first colour photography system that can be used by amateurs



March : Anne Sherritt died (70) Aaron's mother,

16 June : Chief crown prosecutor at Ned's trial Charles Smyth DIED

29 June Ballarat Charles Deutschmann executed after tried and found guilty

01 September : Stanhope O'Conner died

17 September: Denis Sullivan, Platelayer from Glenrowan  DIED


02 Jan: David Gaunson DIED

06 May:  William Anderson, member of Royal Commission died

02 November: Henry Alder driver of pilot engine to Glenrowan died


1910 : 

18 March: Policeman Anthony Alexander #1649, hunted the Kelly gang, died

25 Aug: Robert McBean died

07  October : Ann Jones (smith) from Glenrowan died 

20 November : James Wallace,  friend of Joe and Aaron and school teacher DIED

In 1910 First motor car arrived in Euroa,

In 1910, First Commonweatlh bank notes issued

In 1910.  A revised version of the Tait brothers film "The Kelly Gang" released 


South Australia banned the screening of Bushranger films in 1911


Victoria banned the screening of Bushranger films in 1912

The NSW police department banned the production of Bushranger films in 1912.

29 Feb Mel Joseph victor Pfeiffer executed after tried and found guilty

31 July : Ellen Kelty who was in long running feud with Sherritt family  DIED

06 November: Policeman John Archdeacon #2311, involved with offences of Quinns, died


14 November: George Allen reporter from Glenrowan died

Sadlier's book 'Recollections of a Victorian Police Officer'

1914  :                                   

09 February : Policeman who helped to capture Ned, A L Steele DIED

09 May: Policeman James Whelan  DIED

04 August : Messages were telegraphed from London to all parts of the British dominions announcing that a state of war with the German Empire existed from that hour. the first gun fired in Australia to mark the event was at point Nepean

25 November : The assistant crown prosector at trial of Ellen Kelly and Ned's trial in 1880 Arthur W Chomley DIED


In 1914 A Frenchman named Maurice Guillaux landed his plane at Wangaratta, he pioneered the airmail service from Melbourne to Sydney, then it took two and a half days flying

The World was about to change

1914-18 World War One. Six hundred enlisted from around Euroa, one hundred and twenty five did not come home.



1915 :                    ANZAC


How the name 'Anzac' was coined. It was in the first instance simply a word of convenience; it became a name hallowed by a tragic and glorious history within that fatal year. A telegraphic code word was required. The initial letters of the words 'Australian and New Zealand Army Corps,' stencilled on cases of supplies, suggested to a clerk that Anzac would be a useful short name for telegraphic purposes, and, with General Birdwood's approval, it was adopted.

English as well as Australian troops took part in the Gallipoli campaign.  Any narrative here would do inadequate justice to the superb, reckless courage with which the landings were effected, to the heroic fortitude with which every inch won from the Turks was held, to the stubborn valour which marked the incessant fighting throughout the occupation, would require not a few paragraphs, but more than one volume.

On April 25 landings were forced at two places. Feint attacks were simultaneously made at four other points, in order to occasion a dispersal of the Turkish forces, and to conceal from them the exact places which it was intended to hold. The 29th Division, consisting of British regiments, in co-operation with a naval division and a French contingent, landed at Cape Helles, the nose of the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Anzacs landed at a little cove to the north of a rugged promontory which the Turks called Gaba Tepe. By noon 10,000 men were ashore at Anzac Cove

This was the WRONG landing site, a British stuff up

Singing and shouting, the Anzacs scaled the cliffs, hundreds of them mown down by the Turkish fire; but the dauntless remainder pressed on, and dug themselves in on the top. The fighting was incessant from the early morning of the 25th, all through that day, all through the night, all through the following day. Not for a moment did the rattle of rifle fire and the boom of the big guns cease. The losses were terrific--but the landing was achieved; and that troops were able to gain a footing at all on that steep and rocky peninsula, under constant fire from concealed positions, was the result of a great feat of arms not eclipsed for daring and endurance by any during the war.

The purpose of this desperate attempt, the conquest of the peninsula, was never accomplished

By the middle of August the purpose for which this deadly campaign was undertaken, the capture of the Dardanelles, became regarded as too costly and too little likely to be successful with the strength that could be spared from the main theatre of war. General Sir Charles Munro, who was sent out to take command in succession to General Hamilton, reported that the position so far won on Gallipoli 'possessed every possible military defect.' Lord Kitchener, the Minister of War, visited the peninsula to form an opinion on the prospects. Munro recommended withdrawal; Kitchener confirmed his judgment. The decision to evacuate was arrived at on December 8. By the 20th, 80,000 men, 5,000 horses, and all guns and stores were removed. But 35,000 brave men were left buried on that war-mangled piece of ground, of whom 8,500 were Australians.

06 May Policeman Pewtress who was OIC at Mansfield DIED

14 May : Dr John Nicolson who tended to Fitzpatrick, Hare and Ned's  wounds  DIED 

10 August : David Lindsay, shanty keeper at Winton, and who served Fitzpatrick  DIED

Arthur Burman (photographer) died


24 Jan Mel John Jackson executed after tried and found guilty

18 Sept Mel Antonio Picconi executed after tried and found guilty

21 September:  George Wilson Hall died, he reported many details of Kelly gang 

26 September:  Prosecutor Henry J G Armstrong died

14 November: Hiram Crawford, Beechworth coach company owner DIED 



06 March: John Doxey Policeman who arrested Red Kelly at Avenel  DIED

17 July Honorary JP Willis Little DIED

The war MEMORIAL  at Oxley erected it has many local names on it, night lights installed

Another Ned Kelly movie made called "The Kelly Gang".

1918 :

 Thomas Carrington newspaper artist died

29 Jan Mel Albert edward Budd executed after tried and found guilty

15 April Mel Arthur geoffrey Oldring executed after tried and found guilty

19 April : Ned's School Inspector Gilbert Brown  DIED

19 September : Richard Bracken son of Hugh and Fanny bracken was killed in action in France less than a month before the end of the war. He was in 14th battalion AIF.

Policeman from stringybark creek Thomas McIntyre (72)  DIED      

The Beechworth Prison closed, but reopened in 1925


13 April : George Levey DIED

28 June : During the war Australia despatched 329,883 soldiers abroad. Of these, 59,342 were killed and 166,818 were wounded or 'gassed.' The cost of Australian war services from 1914 to the end of 1919 was 265,800,433 pounds. Up to 1939 the total, including the cost of pensions to disabled soldiers and dependants, had mounted to over 925,000,000 pounds.

After the important part that Australia had taken in the war, it was but fitting that her statesmen should be consulted as to the terms of peace. A delegation from this country, headed by Hughes, participated in the discussions which determined the terms imposed upon Germany and the Germanic powers; and the treaty of Versailles, signed June 28, 1919, contained the signatures of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Defence, Senator Pearce, as well as of the representatives of the other British Dominions


21 September: Superintendent John Sadleir  (86) DIED 


30 June: Gunsmith GW Rosier who supplied guns to Police and ammunition to Maggie Skilling and Tom Lloyd  DIED 

A  Ned Kelly film made, called "The Kelly Gang", directed by Harry Southwell.


May : Mrs Margret Byrne died, (87) (Joe's mother)

27 Aug: Det Michael Ward DIED

31 August: MLA and member of Kelly reward board Robert Murray Smith DIED


Another Ned Kelly film made called "When the Kelly's were out" , produced, directed, and written by Harry Southwell, starred Godfrey Cass as Ned, Godfrey Cass was the son of the Governor of the old melb jail and visited Ned in jail. 

24 April Mel Colin campbell Ross executed after tried and found guilty

20 December : Thomas Curnow, Teacher  from Glenrowan  DIED    

1923 :

27 March :Mrs Ellen Kelly / King, A very old and highly esteemed resident of Greta West died

1924 :

17 January : Policeman William Arthur #2783, died

14 April Mel Angus Murry executed after tried and found guilty

16 May:  Policeman James M Arthur #2971, who found Ned's cap and rifle, died

May : Alex Fitzpatrick (67) , DIED , his wife (Anna) is in same row

22 June:  Policeman James Allwood #2956, who helped recover the three policemen killed at stringybark creek died.

JULY: The last prisoner left the Melbourne Gaol and was relocated to Pentridge. From 1842 until its closure in 1924, the Melbourne Gaol hosted the hangings of 136 people - four of them women. One women was so stressed she was tied to a chair and hung,  Although the vast majority had been found guilty of murder, people were also executed for shooting, robbery, rape and arson. In all, it appears that the bodies of 51 executed prisoners were interred within the gaol's perimeter wall.  Earthworks undertaken in 1929 uncovered bodies the authorities assumed would have been dissolved by the quicklime with which they had been covered.  Members of the public removed bones, including some assumed to belong to Ned Kelly, and returned them only under threat of legal action.  The remains of 46 prisoners were subsequently removed to Pentridge


22 June  Father Matthew Gibney died at  Perth  .  He was buried under the nave of St. Mary's Cathedral, Perth.

The Beechworth prison reopens, after much renovations, as a reformatory prison for Males.

25 October : John Logie Baird, a Scotsman living in England, transmits the first photographic image with a full range of half-tones without the use of wires. the beginning of TV


1926 :

John William Lindt (photographer) died 

17 May  George Devine police man from Jerilderie   DIED

1927 :

27 August : Thomas peter Lloyd died (70), Thomas and Maggie are  buried a few rows from our family at Greta

27 September: Policeman Patrick Gascoigne who injured Ned at the siege  DIED

29 October : "Squizzy" Taylor a notorious criminal during the 1920's shot DEAD in gun battle in Carlton


In 1928 Sydney Road to be known as the Hume Highway after Hamilton Hume



27 August: Joseph Ashmead farmer from Winton who knew kelly family members  DIED

The first modern photoflash bulb or flashbulb was invented by Austrian, Paul Vierkotter. Vierkotter used magnesium-coated wire in an evacuated glass globe. Magnesium-coated wire was soon replaced by aluminium foil in oxygen. On September 23, 1930, the first commercially available photoflash bulb was patented by German, Johannes Ostermeier. These flashbulbs were named the Vacublitz. General Electric produced a flashbulb called the Sashalite


1931 :

05 May : John McMonigle a work mate of Ned DIED 


26 September Pentridge David Bennett executed after tried and found guilty


Inception of Technicolor for movies, where three black and white negatives were made in the same camera under different filters; Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, Edward Weston, et al, form Group f/64 dedicated to "straight photographic thought and production".;



1936 :

MAY : Mr E R Living (79) the Jerilderie  bank accountant  DIED , he had lived at Wangaratta for 30 years after the bank robbery.

01 June Pentridge Arnold Sodeman executed after tried and found guilty

22 June Pentridge Edward Cornelius executed after tried and found guilty

1936: Development of Kodachrome, the first colour multi-layered colour film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera


02 August: Actor Edmund Duggan, who claimed to have been at Ned's trial on 28-29 Oct 1880 DIED

In 1938 A MONUMENT  to the early pioneers of Wangaratta was built to remember them 100 years later after settlement




The second Faithfull's creek homestead burnt in a devastating Black Friday bushfire that started at Tamleugh in VICTORIA   

23 January Pentridge Thomas william Johnson executed after tried and found guilty

17 April Pentridge George Green executed after tried and found guilty


May : Grace Griffiths (74) Neds sister died 


22 December Pentridge Alfred Bye executed after tried and found guilty



1942 :

09 November Pentridge Edward joseph Leonski executed after tried and found guilty

Julian Rossi Ashton newspaper artist died


18 December : Jim "James" Kelly (89) Ned's brother, died 

In 1946 Zoomar introduces the zoom lens, the invention of American Frank Back


Edwin H. Land announces his invention of the Polaroid camera, which can develop images inside the camera in approximately one minute.


Another Ned Kelly film made called "The Glenrowan Affair", starred Bob Chitty as Ned


19 Feb Pentridge Jean Lee (last female), Robert Clayton and Norman Andrews executed after tried and found guilty




Ned's sawn off carbine disappeared from the Museum of Applied Science after Melbourne Aquarium burnt down  



Kodak introduces the Instamatic line, the first point-and-shoot cameras

In 1963 First colour instant film developed by Polaroid;  first purpose-built underwater introduced, the Nikonos



5 August : Elly Byrne Joe's youngest sister died (93)


Black Sunday - seven lives from one family lost in the Longwood bushfire in Victoria.


Last execution in Victoria - Ronald Ryan, The scaffold at the old Melbourne Jail had a beam, rope, trapdoor and mechanism.  After the closure of the Melbourne Gaol in 1924, the scaffold was dismantled and relocated at Pentridge Gaol.  The scaffold, a huge Oregon beam, was used at Pentridge for its executions, ending with the hanging of Ronald Ryan in 1967, the last man to be hanged in Victoria.  After the abolition of capital punishment in 1975, the beam and scaffold were taken down and put into storage.  The beam was reinstated at the Melbourne Gaol on 10 November 2000, just in time for the 120th anniversary of Ned Kelly's hanging on 11 November.


Another Ned Kelly movie is made called "Ned Kelly", starred Mick Jagger as Ned


1975 Steve Sasson at Kodak builds the first working CCD-based digital still camera


Prisoners set fire to the kitchen wing of the Beechworth prison


My boat trip to Mellish reef, we practised early navigation with a sextant, Mellish reef is in the Coral Sea, about 680 km's Off the east coast of Australia, our boat was the Banyandah

Route of Banyandah during our Twenty Seven Day Voyage

Eight days sailing to Mellish
Ten days on Sand Cay operating VK9ZR
Two day sail to Willis Is. weather station
Four Days on Willis Is. operating VK9ZM
Three days sail to Cairns



Fuji introduces the Quicksnap, a disposable camera that revisits the original Kodak principle: the user sends the camera into the manufacturer, which then develops the film


The Victoria Police historical unit and museum formed, now home of Steve Hart armour, and  Dan Kelly armour, reclaimed from old Melbourne jail.



The Kodak  company introduces the Photo CD, the first method of storing digital images to become available to the general public.

February: JPEG, a compression standard for storing and sending photographic images over the Internet, is described in a paper published in "IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics." , and YOU can enjoy many JPEG pictures on this site



10 November : The trap door and the huge Oregon beam, which was used for executions first at Old Melbourne Gaol and then at Pentridge Gaol,    was reinstated at the Old  Melbourne Gaol on 10 November 2000, just in time for the 120th anniversary of Ned Kelly's hanging on 11 November.

2000: Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone


Photograph Company Polaroid goes bankrupt


Another Ned Kelly movie is made called "The Kelly Gang", starred Heath Ledger, mostly a pack of lies,  and an untrue story, here they had a chance of making a good movie but stuffed it up.

26 October : Victorian Police 150 years,  

26 October: 125 year Stringybark creek shootout,    re-enacted  at  Mansfield.


20 DecemberThe old Beechworth prison  decommissioned, as of the 01 November 2006 what is to become of it is unknown.

2004: Kodak ceases production of film cameras


August: 6-7 : Ned Kelly WEEKEND held at Beechworth 125 years after he appeared there in court 

September: The new 125th anniversary  Of Ned Kelly EXHIBITION at Beechworth, in the Burke museum opens.

October: Joe Byrne PISTOL up for sale

November : Release of Movie The Last Outlaw on DVD

November : 125th SERVICE held for Ned being hanged at old Melbourne jail

2006:   Faithful creek site bulldozed, Chimney at Kelly homestead at Greta fell down, siege site at Glenrowan wrecked

August : Kelly weekend held at Beechworth, Ian Jones retires from "Ned Kelly" public life, Town of Beechworth made over $1,000,000

October : In a recent interview with the current owner of the Faithfull creek property he said he will be rebuilding the homestead.


Ned Kelly Exhibition at Beechworth closes




2039 : This will be the bicentenary of my family in Australia, I'll be 84, I hope I am still alive to celebrate it !!!

I hope you have enjoyed this trip through some of Australia's history

Please read the DISCLAIMER  , events marked with * are not confirmed








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